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MICROSOFT 
MULTIPLAN 



Electronic 
Worksheet 



For CP/M-80 



Microsoft™ Multiplan 



Electronic Worksheet 



for CP/M®-80 



TM 



Microsoft Corporation 



Information in this document is subject to change without notice and 
does not represent a commitment on the part of Microsoft Corporation. 
The software described in this document is furnished under a license 
agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or 
copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It is against 
the law to copy Microsoft Multiplan on cassette tape, disk, or any other 
medium for any purpose other than the purchaser's personal use. 



5 Microsoft Corporation 1982 



Microsoft Corporation 

10700 Northup Way 

C-97200 

Bellevue, WA 98004 



Microsoft and Multiplan are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 

VisiCalc is a trademark of VisiCorp, Inc. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 



Catalog no. 3223 
Part no. 32F23A 



Document no. 8901-100-Olb 



Preface 



Microsoft™ Multiplan™ is a personal productivity tool that will 
help you analyze data. As an aid for both business and personal 
needs, Multiplan is one of the most powerful modeling and 
planning tools ever invented. With Multiplan you can do the 
capital budgeting for a small company; you can make major 
sales force decisions or analyze product planning; you can plan 
your personal investments and put together a budget for your 
family . . . and much more. 

Multiplan is easy to learn, and its versatility is enhanced by the 
skill of its user. As you become more familiar with Multiplan, 
and better able to exercise its powers, you'll be surprised at how 
quickly and efficiently you'll accomplish various tasks. 

The two parts of this manual are designed as a tutorial and a 
reference guide to Multiplan. Part 1 is the tutorial, which gives 
you an overview of the features of the system. Part 2 is a de- 
tailed reference guide to all Multiplan features. Parts 1 and 2 
complement one another; together, they will teach you both the 
concepts and uses of Multiplan. 

The design of Multiplan allows you to work intuitively; its 
capabilities allow you to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. 

Welcome! We hope you enjoy working with your powerful new 
assistant: Microsoft Multiplan. 



in 



Contents 

Preface iii 
Introduction xiii 
Operating Information xvii 

Part 1 Using Multiplan 1 

1 Fundamentals 3 

The Screen 5 

The Direction Keys 7 

Moving the Cell Pointer 8 

The Status Line 9 

Scrolling the Worksheet 11 

The Goto ( G ) Command 14 

Command Selection from Menus 17 

Multiplan Proposed Responses 18 

Filling in the Command Line: The TAB Key 19 

Carrying Out a Command: The RETURN Key 20 

Canceling a Command: The CANCEL Key 20 

The Help ( H ) Command 20 

The Quit ( Q ) Command 23 

Summary 23 

2 Building a Worksheet 25 

The Worksheet Number Grid 28 

Entering Text: The Alpha (A) Command 30 

Correcting Typing Errors: The BACKSPACE Key 32 

Entering Data with the Direction Keys 33 

Column Width 37 

The Format Width Command 38 

Entering Numbers 40 



Contents 



The Format Default Cells Command 43 

Alignment 44 

Formats 45 

Saving Work:The Transfer Save Command 47 

The Quit ( Q ) Command 49 

Summary 49 



3 Entering Formulas 51 

Loading a File: The Transfer Load Command 53 

The Insert Command 55 

Entering Additional Text 57 

Entering Additional Numbers 59 

Aligning Cell Contents 60 

Ranges: The Colon 62 

The Blank Command 65 

Formulas 66 

Building a Formula 67 

Reviewing or Changing a Formula 76 

The Status Line: Cell Contents 76 

Drawing Lines 78 

The Transfer Save Command (Review) 80 

Summary 81 



4 Naming Cells and Copying 83 

The Transfer Load Command (Review) 85 

Titles 86 

Format: Align Center 89 

The Copy Right Command 91 

Formulas ( Review ) 98 

Naming Cells 99 

Building a Formula Using Names 103 

The Goto Name Command 107 

Calculating Functions: SUM 110 

Number Signs (#) 113 

Error Values 114 

Relative References and Absolute References 116 

Copying a Formula: The Copy From Command 121 

Summary 123 



VI 



Contents 



5 Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 125 

Fixing Titles: The Window Split Title Command 128 
Opening a Window: The Window Split Command 131 
Linking Windows: The Window Link Command 134 
Bordering Windows: The Window Border Command 136 
Building a Formula to Show Increasing Sales 138 
Copying a Formula to the Right: The Copy Right Command 

(Review) 142 
What If ... ? 144 

Protecting the Worksheet: The Lock Formulas Command 145 
The NEXT UNLOCKED CELL Key 146 
Unlocking Cells 148 
The Options Command 148 
Summary 152 



6 Printing a Worksheet 153 

The Print Command 155 
The Print Printer Command 156 
Other Print Subcommands 157 
Summary 158 



7 Using Multiple Worksheets 159 

Relating Worksheets to Each Other 163 

The Transfer Clear Command 164 

Building a Supporting Sheet 165 

Naming Related Worksheets 170 

The external Copy Command 171 

Revising a Supporting Sheet 179 

Dissolving Connections between Worksheets 182 

The external List Command 185 

Summary 186 

Learning More about Multiplan 187 



vn 



Contents 



Part 2 Reference to Multiplan 189 



8 Elements of Multiplan 191 

The Microsoft Multiplan Worksheet 193 
Entering Commands 196 
Select a Command 197 

Select Responses for the Command Fields 198 
Proposed Responses 199 
Editing 200 
Formulas 202 

Numbers 203 

Text 204 

References to Cells 205 

Absolute References 206 
Relative References 206 
Names 209 
Intersection Operator 210 
Range Operator 211 
Union Operator 212 
Logical Values 215 
Error Values 215 
Files 217 

File Handling 217 
Problems with File Access 219 
External Relationships 220 
Transforming the Worksheet 223 



9 Command Directory 225 



Alpha 230 




Blank 232 




Copy 233 




Copy Down 


234 


Copy From 


235 


Copy Right 


238 


Delete 239 




Delete Column 


240 


Delete Row 


241 


Edit 242 





Contents 



Format 243 

Format Cells 245 

Format Default 249 

Format Default Cells 250 
Format Default Width 251 

Format Options 252 

Format Width 253 
Goto 255 

Goto Name 256 

Goto Row-col 257 

Goto Window 258 
Help 259 
Insert 261 

Insert Column 262 

Insert Row 263 
Lock 264 

Lock Cells 265 

Lock Formulas 266 
Move 267 

Move Column 269 

Move Row 270 
Name 271 
Options 273 
Print 274 

Print File 275 

Print Margins 276 

Print Options 277 

Print Printer 278 
Quit 279 
Sort 280 
Transfer 282 

Transfer Clear 283 

Transfer Delete 284 

Transfer Load 285 

Transfer Options 287 

Transfer Rename 288 

Transfer Save 289 
Value 291 
Window 293 

Window Border 294 

Window Close 295 

Window Link 296 

Window Split 298 

Window Split Horizontal 299 
Window Split Titles 300 
Window Split Vertical 301 



IX 



Contents 



external 302 

external Copy 303 

external List 306 

external Use 307 



10 Function Directory 309 

ABS 312 
AND 313 
ATAN 314 
AVERAGE 315 
COLUMN 316 
COS 317 
COUNT 318 
DOLLAR 319 
EXP 320 
FALSE 321 
FIXED 322 
IF 323 
INDEX 324 
INT 325 
ISERROR 326 
ISNA 327 
LEN 328 
LN 329 
LOG10 330 
LOOKUP 331 
MAX 333 
MID 334 
MIN 335 
MOD 336 
NA 337 
NOT 338 
NPV 339 
OR 340 
PI 341 
REPT 342 
ROUND 343 
ROW 344 
SIGN 345 
SIN 346 
SQRT 347 
STDEV 348 



Contents „ 



SUM 349 
TAN 350 
TRUE 351 
VALUE 352 



11 Message Directory 353 

Appendices 363 

1 Helpful Hints 365 

2 Glossary 369 

3 Notes for the VisiCalc™ User 377 

4 The SYLK (Symbolic Link) File Format 387 

5 Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 395 

Index 



XI 



Introduction 



Microsoft Multiplan is an electronic worksheet— a large grid of 
entries, each of which can be words, numbers, or formulas. You 
can set up the Multiplan worksheet with titles and numbers. But 
more, Multiplan can replace your pen and paper and your 
calculator because Multiplan can perform the calculations for 
you. 

Multiplan frees you from the limitations of more traditional 
methods of calculation. Because Multiplan remembers the rela- 
tionships between entries on the worksheet, it can automatically 
perform calculations— and this is where the real power comes 
from. You get a chance to ask "What if?" to test out plans and to 
forecast. What if one number changes? What is the effect on the 
Worksheet? 

For example: 

What if costs rise by 10% for one item and 6.5% for another? 

What if production increases? 

What if sales of one item skyrocket? 

What if home utility bills soar? 

Is it worth it to pay express freight to get a product early? 

Is it worth it to give a discount to marginal buyers? 

Alter a critical number and watch the figures change across your 
worksheet; observe the effects over time of a small change here, 
an improvement there. You can run sensitivity analyses, do 
budget and resource planning, and schedule more efficiently. 
You'll soon agree that Multiplan is a vast improvement over 
"hand calculating" methods. 

Multiplan overcomes the limitations of paper worksheets. Mul- 
tiplan offers you a worksheet 255 rows long and 63 columns wide 
for words, numbers, and formulas. Multiplan allows you to 



xm 



Multiplan 



connect several worksheets so that you can build up a chain of 
sheets that provide information to each other. You can, as 
necessary, instantly move, insert, or erase data; widen or shrink 
columns ; or insert or delete space ; thereby eliminating the costly 
and tiresome work of typing or hand printing the worksheet over 
and over. The Multiplan worksheet is always very flexible. 

Multiplan communicates with you as directly and naturally as 
possible, providing many aids to help you accomplish your 
objectives. You will soon learn how to manipulate data to obtain 
the answers you need. 



How to Proceed 

An interactive program like Multiplan can be learned only by 
use. This manual is designed to be read and used as you use 
Multiplan. It's important that you try, test, and experiment as 
you learn. You'll be surprised at how quickly it all falls together. 
Nothing you type can damage the computer or Multiplan, so 
don't hesitate to experiment. 

Part 1, "Using Multiplan," introduces Multiplan in a tutorial 
manner, in simple steps with many practical examples. You'll 
learn by using Multiplan to make a financial analysis of a model 
firm— Spencer Ceramics. The tutorial demonstrates the main 
Multiplan features as they are commonly used. 

Begin by working through Part 1. Chapter 1, "Fundamentals," 
and Chapter 2, "Building a Worksheet," help you become familiar 
with the keyboard and screen display and introduce you to the 
Multiplan typing aids. 

"Entering Formulas" and "Naming Cells and Copying," Chapters 
3 and 4, lead you further into the use of Multiplan. When you 
complete these chapters you'll have used some of the most 
important Multiplan commands and features. 



xiv 



Introduction 



Chapter 5, "Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options," intro- 
duces the finer points of the Multiplan screen display. After 
completing it, you'll be ready to print some samples of your 
work. Chapter 6, "Printing a Worksheet," tells you how. The 
final chapter in the tutorial, Chapter 7, "Using Multiple Work- 
sheets," takes you beyond working with a single sheet. You learn 
how to organize data on multiple sheets and to draw data from 
them for use on another sheet. 

As you work through Part 1, you'll find it helpful to refer to 
Part 2, "Reference to Multiplan." 

Part 2, "Reference to Multiplan," begins with Chapter 8, "Ele- 
ments of Multiplan," which explains in depth the Multiplan 
worksheet, how to enter commands, how to edit, what formulas 
are, how access to files works, and what happens when the 
worksheet undergoes changes that move data. 

Part 2 also contains detailed descriptions of all Multiplan com- 
mands in Chapter 9, "Command Directory," of all mathematical 
and statistical functions in Chapter 10, "Function Directory," 
and of all messages Multiplan displays in Chapter 11, "Message 
Directory." 

At the end of Part 2, you'll find appendices that contain addi- 
tional information you'll find helpful. Appendix 1, entitled 
"Helpful Hints," is the most important. These hints suggest 
ways to make your Multiplan sessions more efficient and effective; 
if you follow the hints, you'll save time and space. 

Included also is the Multiplan Quick Reference Guide, which 
summarizes Multiplan for quick, easy reference. 

Begin applying Multiplan to simple tasks, making frequent use 
of Part 2. As you gain experience, use Multiplan for more complex 
tasks, such as organizing multiple worksheets. You'll soon find 
that you have a firm grip on a powerful tool. 



XV 



Operating Information 



The following sections explain how to start a Multiplan session 
and how Multiplan works with various memory configurations 
and input/output devices. This information will help you operate 
Multiplan under the CP/M-80 operating system. 



How to Start Multiplan 

After the first time, start Multiplan by following these three 
steps: 

1. Insert a Multiplan diskette that also contains a copy of 
the operating system in drive A. 

2. Insert a data diskette in drive B. 

3. Type MP, then press RETURN. 



How to Start Multiplan the First Time 



The first time you use Multiplan, you must perform a few 
preliminary tasks. 

To protect yourself from accidental errors and to make Multiplan 
easier to use, you will want to make a copy of Multiplan with 
CP/M-80 and the PIP utility. This copy has to be made on a 
formatted diskette. So you will want to format one diskette for 
your copy of Multiplan (see the section "How to Format a New 
Diskette") then follow the procedure described in "How to Make 
a Copy of Multiplan." 

Multiplan worksheets must also be saved on formatted diskettes. 
You should format at least one diskette for worksheets. Once 
you've started formatting diskettes, you might as well format 
several data diskettes. 

xvii 



Operating Information 



Before you can run Multiplan, you must tell Multiplan about the 
characteristics of your terminal. To do this, run the Install 
program, described in the section "How to Run the Install 
Program." 

These tasks may seem difficult at first, but formatting a diskette 
(a task you'll perform many times as you use Multiplan) will 
soon be routine. You need to copy Multiplan only once, and, 
unless you change terminals, you need to run the Install program 
only once. In fact, once you've created a "bootable" copy of 
Multiplan, just follow the three easy steps, described at the 
beginning of this section, to start Multiplan. 



How to Start Multiplan for Mode Conversion 



You can also start Multiplan with the names of worksheet files 
you want loaded at the same time: 

MPfilel file2 ... filen 

If you give only one filename with MP, the computer loads 
Multiplan, and Multiplan loads the worksheet file in Normal 
mode. (For details of worksheet modes, see the Transfer Options 
command in Chapter 9. ) 

If you give more than one filename, Multiplan processes the 
worksheet files in pairs, as follows: 

For every pair of files you specify, Multiplan converts the 
first file of the pair from Symbolic format mode to Normal 
format mode and gives the Normal format file the second 
name of the pair. For example: 

MP80 Modef.SK Model. MP 

converts the file named Model. SK (a worksheet in Symbolic 
Link format — SYLK ) then sends the result to a file named 
ModeLMP. 



xvm 



Operating Information 



After Multiplan converts the first file to the second, it goes 
on to the next pair of files and converts those. Multiplan 
continues to process the files in pairs until the last file on 
the list is reached. Multiplan then loads the last file named 
in Normal mode for your work with Multiplan. 



Restarting the Operating System ("Warm Booting") 



In general, when you replace one diskette with another, you 
must inform the system you have done so by "warm booting." 
The "warm booting" procedure involves pressing CTRL-C 
(pressing simultaneously the CTRL key and the C key). The 
diskette should spin, and a prompt should appear. If the system 
expects diskettes to be exchanged, as happens when Multiplan 
allows you to change data diskettes, you should not warm boot. 
In these cases, warm booting stops the program. 



How to Format a New Diskette 



To format a new diskette, use a CP/M-80 initialization or format 
program. This program appears under many names (FORMAT, 
INIT, CREATE, FMT, etc.). See your CP/M-80 manual for the 
name and exact usage. A typical FORMAT program works like 
this: 

1 . With a system diskette in drive A, place a blank diskette in 
drive B. 

2. Type FORMAT, then press RETURN. 

The screen will display a message telling you that the 
contents of the diskette in drive B will be erased and asking 
you if that is what you want. 

3. Press Y then RETURN. 

The system will ask what drive to use. 



xix 



Operating Information 



4. Press B then RETURN. 

If the system asks for the density, select an appropriate 
density. Usually this density will be the highest density 
available on your system. You will be asked to insert a 
diskette and to press RETURN. Make sure that the blank 
diskette is in drive B and that the drive door is closed. 

5. Press RETURN. 

6. When asked if you want to format more diskettes, press N 
then RETURN. 

7. Press RETURN again. The computer returns to the system 
in drive A. The diskette in drive B is formatted. 



How to Make a Copy of Multiplan 



Making a copy of Multiplan is a procedure accomplished in three 
phases. First, you copy CP/M-80 onto a formatted diskette. 
Second, you copy the PIP program onto that diskette. Third, 
you copy Multiplan onto that diskette. 

1. Copy CP/M-80. 

Note This procedure is different in each CP/M-80 

system. You should also consult your CP/M-80 
manual. The description of a typical copying 
procedure follows. 

Insert a CP/M-80 system master diskette in drive A and a 
formatted, blank diskette in drive B. 

Type SYSGEN, then press RETURN. 

Note In some systems, SYSGEN may have another 

name. Consult your CP/M-80 manual. 

When you are asked for the source drive, press A, but do 
not press RETURN. The screen should now display 

SOURCE ON A 



xx 



Operating Information 

Now, press RETURN. The computer will display 

COPYBIOS.SYS(Y/N) 
Press Y, but not RETURN. The computer will display 

DESTINATION DRIVE NAME: 

Press B then RETURN. 

The destination drive already has the diskette inserted, so 
simply press RETURN. 

After the computer displays 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 
press RETURN again. 
Copy the PIP program. 
Type 

PIP B: = A:PIRCOM 

then press RETURN. This command copies only the PIP 
program. This procedure should work for all CP/M-80 
systems. 

Copy Multiplan onto the diskette that has the copy of 
CP/M-80 and PIP. 

Move the diskette in drive B to drive A. Insert the Multiplan 
distribution diskette in drive B. 

Warm boot (press CTRLC). 

Type 

PIPA: = B:*.*[V] 

When a drive prompt reappears, the diskette in drive A will 
contain a complete "bootable" copy of Multiplan with the 
PIP utility on the same diskette. 



xxi 



Operating Information 



The copy of Multiplan is now on the diskette in drive A and is 
ready to use. Remove the Multiplan distribution diskette from 
drive B and store it in a safe place. 

Follow the three steps listed under "How to Start Multiplan." 



Keyboard 



In the rest of the Multiplan manual, the keyboard keys are 
referred to by a functional name (by what they do), rather than 
by what may be written on the key. 

The following are the basic key assignments provided by the 
Install program. Depending on the terminal you use, you may 
have additional function keys or different key assignments. 
This chart is also listed in your Multiplan Quick Reference 
Guide. An extended chart, which lists terminal-specific keys, is 
available in Multiplan itself by pressing H then K (for Help 
.Keyboard). (Press N, for JVext, to view more of the chart.) 

Note For some functions, several alternatives are listed, 

separated by commas. CTRL-( letter key) means press 
the CTRL key and the letter key simultaneously. 

Key Function 

CTRL-E (UP DIRECTION). Move the cell pointer 

up one row. 

CTRL-X (DOWN DIRECTION). Move the cell 

pointer down one row. 

CTRL-S (LEFT DIRECTION). Move the cell 

pointer left one column. 

CTRL-D (RIGHT DIRECTION). Move the cell 

pointer right one column. 

Note that the direction keys form a diamond on the keyboard. 
Continue moving the cell pointer to scroll the contents of the 
window. 



xxu 



Operating Information 



A direction key may be preceded by CTRL-R to scroll to the next 
window-size page of the worksheet in the direction of the key. 



CTRL-R CTRL-E 
CTRL-R CTRL-X 
CTRL-R CTRL-S 
CTRL-R CTRL-D 
CTRL-Q 
CTRL-Z 

CTRL-W, ; 



CTRL-F, 
LINE FEED 



CTRL-C 



RETURN 



SPACE 

BACKSPACE, 
CTRL-H 



TAB, CTRL-I, 
CTRL-A 



(PAGE UP). 

(PAGE DOWN). 

(PAGE LEFT). 

(PAGE RIGHT). 

(HOME ). Moves the cell pointer to RlCl. 

(END). Moves the cell pointer to the last 
cell down and right that has contents or 
has been formatted. 

(NEXT WINDOW). Moves the cell pointer 
to the next window. 

(NEXT UNLOCKED CELL). Moves the 
cell pointer to the next unlocked, nonblank 
cell. 

( CANCEL ). Cancels the present operation 
and returns to the main command menu. 

(RETURN). Starts a command selected 
from a menu or carries out a completed 
command. 

Selects the next item on a menu. 

Selects the previous item on a menu. When 
editing responses in command fields, de- 
letes selected characters. Replacement text 
may be typed. 

(TAB). Moves to and selects the entire 
contents of the next field in the command 
line. 



Operating Information 



CTRL-Y, 
DELETE 

CTRL-L 



CTRL-K 
CTRL-P 
CTRL-0 



(HELP). Requests information about the 
selected command or the command in 
progress at the time of the request. 

(RECALCULATE). Recalculates the en- 
tire worksheet. If typed in a formula, the 
formula will be replaced by its result. 

(DELETE). Deletes selected characters. 
Replacement text may be typed. 

(CHARACTER RIGHT). Selects the 
character to the right of the current 
character. 

(CHARACTER LEFT). Selects the char- 
acter to the left of the current character. 

(WORD RIGHT). Selects the word to the 
right of the current word. 

(WORD LEFT). Selects the word to the 
left of the current word. 

(REFERENCE). Changes relative refer- 
ences to absolute. Also enters names in 
formulas. 



Memory Use 



Multiplan requires at least 64K bytes of memory. With this 
much memory, the user's workspace is more than 13K bytes. To 
save workspace, use the suggestions in Appendix 1, "Helpful 
Hints." Only part of the Multiplan program is actually in memory 
at any given time. Other parts of Multiplan remain on diskette 
and are read into memory when they are needed, displacing other 
portions of the program. This process is called swapping. 



XXIV 



Operating Information 

Filenames 



Computer files, like files of paper documents, are collections of 
information. This information may be data (numbers, text, 
formulas, and so on), computer programs, or a combination of 
the two. 

You will be using the Multiplan program file, named MP.COM, 
and any number of Multiplan worksheet files that you create 
yourself. Worksheet files are a permanent record of the information 
that you enter into the worksheet. 

Files are stored on floppy diskettes. Because there may be many 
files on each diskette, files are identified by filenames. This 
makes it easy for you to find specific information. 

Filenames may be up to 8 characters long. Filenames should 

begin with a letter, followed by any of the characters A-Z, 0-9, 

(underline), or - (hyphen). 

To further distinguish among files that may be named similarly, 
a period and up to 3 additional letters may be appended to a 
filename as an extension of the name. The most common use for 
filename extensions is to be able to distinguish the type of the file 
(types of data or the file format mode) at a glance. 

Each diskette has a filename directory to help you and the 
computer keep track of what files are on the diskette. 

To view the directory, use the direction keys with the Transfer 
Load command (explained in Chapter 9). Or, you can use the 
operating system DIR (for directory) command, which is 
described in the CP/M-80 manual. 



XXV 



Operating Information 

Use of Disk Drives 

Warning Do not change diskettes in the diskette drives unless : 

1 . Multiplan specifically asks you to . Then , put the 
diskette into the correct drive, as explained below. 

or 

2. Multiplan displays the main command menu. 

In particular do not change diskettes while Multiplan 
shows Help text and the Help command menu. 

Always handle diskettes carefully. Protect the diskette from 
dust, magnetism, extremes of temperature, and mechanical 
hazards (bending or writing on the label with a ballpoint pen or 
with a pencil). 

You may include an explicit drive letter in a filename (for example, 
B-.SPENCER.WRK, where B: is the drive designation). 

While working with Multiplan, you might use several disk drives. 
Multiplan selects the drive to access to be the first of: 

1. The drive designation given as part of a filename. 

2. The "setup" field of the Transfer Options command. 

3. The logged-in drive when you typed MP. The logged-in 
drive is indicated by the letter in the prompt when you 
started Multiplan. For example, A> or B>, and so on. 



Operating Information 

Multiplan assumes that you want to load and save your work- 
sheets and printfiles on the diskette from which you booted the 
system. If you have more than one disk drive, you can direct 
Multiplan to stbre data on a different diskette by changing the 
default drive, as follows: 

1. Press T then 0. 

You are now in the Transfer Options command. 

2. Press TAB. 

You are now in the "setup" field. 

3 . Type ( drive letter ) : . 

For example, if you want to change the default drive to 
drive B, type B:. At this point, you may want to switch 
diskettes in the designated drive. It is all right to do so. 

4. Press RETURN. 

Multiplan will now look on drive B for worksheets and any files 
you want to print. It will look on drive A for the parts of 
Multiplan needed for "swapping." Multiplan will "swap" in part 
of the program before it writes out a worksheet or file, so don't 
panic if you see drive A turn on when you direct Multiplan to 
access a file. 



Disk Errors 



If a serious disk error occurs, the operating system may issue the 
error message: 

Bdos Err on drive (letter): (message) 

message is one of the following: SELECT, R/O, BAD SECTOR. 
Correct the problem as suggested below, then press RETURN 
to continue Multiplan. 

A SELECT error message probably means that you entered the 
name of a drive that does not exist. 



xxvn 



Operating Information 



A R/O ( read only ) error message means that you tried to write to 
a protected file or diskette. Either remove write protection from 
the file or diskette (see your CP/M-80 manual) or write to another 
(unprotected) file. 

A BAD SECTOR error message means one of several problems: 
your diskette may be improperly seated; the disk drive door may 
be open; the disk drive may be write protected. Check for these 
conditions and correct if found. Reboot the operating system and 
start Multiplan. If the BAD SECTOR error message reappears, 
your diskette may be bad. If the diskette is a data diskette, 
replace it with another unused, formatted diskette. If the bad 
diskette contains the bootable copy of Multiplan, make another 
bootable copy. Then reboot the operating system and start 
Multiplan. 

If the diskette is full, a disk full error may occur. New diskettes 
must be formatted before they can be used to store Multiplan (or 
any other) files. This procedure is described in the "How to 
Format a New Diskette" section. 



Printer 

CP/M-80 works with a wide variety of printers. Multiplan will 
work with most of them (the printer should expect ASCII 
characters and a carriage return and a line feed in that order at 
the end of each line). If the printer needs special characters sent 
to it to set special modes (for example, bold printing or 132 
character width), Multiplan can send the necessary special 
characters. 

1. From the Multiplan main command menu, press P then 0. 
This puts you in the Print Options command. 

2. Press TAB. 

This puts you in the "setup" field. 



XXVlll 



Operating Information 



3. Type in the special characters. 

These characters will be sent to the printer only at the start 
of printing a sheet. 

To send a control character, press A then the uppercase 
character (for example, CTRL-L becomes A L). To send an 
escape character, press * then press [. Your printer manual 
will tell you what modes are possible and what special 
characters to send to set the modes. 

The "setup" field of the Print Options command is saved 
when you save the worksheet. Once the worksheet is for- 
matted properly, it will always print out the way you direct. 



How to Run the Install Program 



Install is a program used with Microsoft products that run under 
the CP/M-80 operating system. CP/M-80 supports many different 
types of terminals. For Multiplan to run correctly on a specific 
terminal, Multiplan needs to know the characteristics of the 
terminal. Install is a program that adds information about your 
terminal to the Multiplan file. 

The Install program includes a file ( INSTALL.DAT) that contains 
descriptions of many terminals. If the description of your terminal 
is in the INSTALL.DAT file, you can quickly modify Multiplan 
for your terminal. 

If your terminal is not described in the INSTALL.DAT file, 
Install will display questions about terminal characteristics. You 
will need a manual that describes your terminal for answers to 
most of the questions. Your answers will be recorded in the 
INSTALL.DAT file. You can review and edit them later. 

Throughout, Install displays explanatory text to help you 
complete the answer file. 



xxix 



Operating Information 



To run Install, you need six files: 

INSTALL.COM The Install program file. 



INSTALL.OVR 
INSTALL.SPC 
INSTALL.MSG 

INSTALL.DAT 



MP.COM 



Data files needed by the Install pro- 
gram. 



The file that contains descriptions of 
terminals. If Install lists your term- 
inal, then this file contains a de- 
scription of your terminal. 

The Multiplan file to be modified by 
Install. 



Install consists of five phases: 



Phase 1 

Phase 2 
Phase 3 
Phase 4 
Phase 5 



Starting Install and determining if a 
description of your terminal is in- 
cluded. 

Answering questions about your ter- 
minal if it is not included in Install. 

Reviewing and editing your answers 
to the questions in Phase 2. 

Running terminal tests to verify your 
answers in Phase 2. 

Running Multiplan. 



xxx 



Operating Information 




5. 



run 
Multiplan 



run 

terminal 

tests 



yes 




Phases of the Install Program 



Operating Information 



Phase 1: Starting Install 

The first phase of the Install program includes starting Install 
and determining if a description of your terminal is included 
in the INSTALL.DAT file. 

To start the Install program, type: 

INSTALL 

then press RETURN. The Install program displays some text 
that describes the files you need and the basic keys you will need. 
The files were described above. The basic keys are: 

CTRL-C To abort the Install program at any time. 

RETURN Pressed after typing in each answer. To go 

on with the Install program at any time, 
whether or not you type an answer to a 
question, you press RETURN. 

Next you are asked which program you want to modify with 
Install. When you have answered this question and Install has 
found the file on a diskette, you are shown a list of terminals. If 
your terminal is listed, type the number corresponding to your 
terminal and press RETURN. At this point, simply jump to 
Phase 5, "Running Multiplan." Phases 2 through 4 do not apply 
to your terminal and the portions of Install dealing with Phases 
2 through 4 will not appear. 

If your terminal is not listed, press 1 to define your own terminal. 
If you select 1, Install begins to ask you questions about your 
terminal (Phase 2— see the description below). Install then runs 
short terminal tests. After each test, press RETURN to continue 
with the next one. If any of the tests fail, press Control-C to exit 
the terminal tests. 

If all terminal tests end successfully, Install finishes the program 
automatically, including adding the description of your terminal 
to Multiplan. When Install is finished, it displays the message 
"Install complete." 



XXXll 



Operating Information 



Phase 2: Answer Questions 



Install asks if you want to go through all the questions se- 
quentially or if you want to see a menu of all the questions and 
proposed responses. Phase 3 describes how to select and change 
items on the menu. But if this is the first time you've run Install, 
press Y and RETURN. Install now displays questions about how 
screen functions are executed on your terminal. 

You should try to answer all the questions as best you can. The 
questions on cursor positioning must be answered. If not answered 
or if answered incorrectly, Multiplan will not run. If you do not 
answer the other questions, the full features of the Multiplan 
display will not be used. 

The answers may be either responses you type or proposed 
answers that are already a part of Install. To accept correct 
answers, simply press RETURN. 

The questions display characters to prompt you for the type of 
answer you should enter. The prompts characters are: 

( I ) for Integer. Use only number keys for this type 

of answer. 

(Y/N) for Yes or No. Answer with Y, y, N, or n. 

(S) for Character string. Enter a sequence of 

characters. Special keys can be coded with an 
escape character (there are two). For example, 
"What sequence of characters start highlight- 
ing?" If the answer is ESCAPE-P, then you 
type &EP. When you see the ( S ) prompt, typing 
&M causes Install to display a menu of the 
escape characters. 



xxxm 



Operating Information 



There are two escape characters; & and A . The * 
is for the coding of control characters. The & is 
for the following characters. The characters can 
be typed in lowercase or uppercase. 

&E - escape 
&N - newline 
&F - forward-space 
&R - return 
&T - tab 
&B - backspace 
&X - rubout 
& A - A 

&, - , 

&Dxxx - xxx, three digit decimal value (less 

than 256) 

&Oxxx - xxx, three digit octal value (less than 

400 octal) 

&Hxx - xx, hex value 

&P&Hxx - pause xx (hex) milliseconds 

&Iy&Dxxx - send the pad character 'y', xxx 

times 

&Y - Y Used to code a Y after a control-C 

&M - print this menu 

Note The millisecond timing of a pause is 

for an 8 MHz clock. If you have a 4 
MHz clock, divide the value by two. 
If you have a 2 MHz clock, divide the 
value by four. 

You will also be asked questions about key assignments and 
about graphics characters (questions that have the (S) prompt). 
You can assign special keys on your terminal to Multiplan 
functions. For example, if you want the left arrow key to move a 
screen feature to the left in Multiplan, then you must assign this 
left movement to the left arrow key. You are not required to 
assign special keys because control characters provide most of 
the screen functions. 



xxxiv 



Operating Information 



You can also tell Multiplan the sequence of characters it must 
output to display graphics characters needed by Multiplan. For 
example, Microsoft Multiplan needs to generate graphics 
characters to form borders and column indicators, as follows: 



vertical bar 


1 


upper right corner 


~l 


lower right corner 


J 


lower left corner 


L 


upper left corner 


r 


top half of a + 


JL 


bottom half of a + 


T 


horizontal bar 


— 



Multiplan links these graphics characters together to form a 
box: 




You can answer questions to tell Install the sequence of characters 
that generate these graphics. 

When you have seen and answered all questions, you are ready to 
review and edit your answers: Phase 3. 



XXXV 



Operating Information 



Phase 3: Reviewing and Editing Answers 

You can review and edit all answers before installing the terminal 
characteristics in the Multiplan file. Install displays a menu 
listing questions and their current or proposed responses. To 
change a response, type the question number and press RETURN. 
Then answer any questions Install asks. 



Phase 4: Running Terminal Tests 

Install runs eight terminal tests. During the tests, pressing 
Control-C returns control to the Install program. 

The tests are: 

1. Cursor position. No scrolling should occur during this test. 

2. Clear to end of display. 

3. Multiplan initialization. 

4. Key assignment. Press any key except RETURN to test. If 
you assigned RETURN to another key, pressing this other 
key terminates the key assignment test. 

5. Highlighting. If the terminal does not have "inverse" video 
(shows black characters on a white background), brackets 
are placed around highlighted fields. 

6. Cursor on/off, key click on/off. 

7. Bell. 

8. Graphics characters. 

Phase 5: Running Multiplan 

Multiplan is now ready to be run. Follow the instructions in 
"How to Start Multiplan." 

If Multiplan does not run correctly, rerun Install to review and 
edit your answers. 



Operating Information 



User Defined Routines 



The install program will set up Multiplan for most terminals. 
However, in rare cases you may need to provide your own 
routines to read and write to the terminal. 

You can define your own routines to allow Multiplan to interface 
with either a memory mapped or serial terminal. 

The following is a list of routines that you may define: 

OutChar Output a character to the screen 

ReadChar Read a character from the screen 

Setpos Position the cursor on the screen 

ReadXco Read the x coordinate of the cursor 

ReadYco Read the y coordinate of the cursor 

SetAttr Set a screen attribute (i.e., reverse video) 

AlterAttr Alter the attribute of characters on the 
screen 

Scroll Scroll the screen in one of four directions 

ClrScr Clear the screen 

If you need to write your own interface routines, phone: 

(206)828-8080 
Microsoft Corporation 
Product Support Group 

and ask for the "User Defined Routines for Install" manual. 



xxxvn 



Operating Information 



Catalog no. 3223 
xxxviii Part no. 32F23A 



Parti 

Using M ultiplan 



1 Fundamentals 3 

2 Building a Worksheet 25 

3 Entering Formulas 51 

4 Naming Cells and Copying 83 

5 Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 125 

6 Printing a Worksheet 153 

7 Using Multiple Worksheets 159 



Chapter 1 
Fundamentals 



The Screen 5 

The Direction Keys 7 

Moving the Cell Pointer 8 

The Status Line 9 

Scrolling the Worksheet 11 

The Goto ( G ) Command 14 

Command Selection from Menus 17 

Multiplan Proposed Responses 18 

Filling in the Command Line: The TAB Key 19 

Carrying Out a Command: The RETURN Key 20 

Canceling a Command: The CANCEL Key 20 

The Help ( H ) Command 20 

The Quit ( Q ) Command 23 

Summary 23 



Fundamentals 



The Screen 



To work with Microsoft Multiplan, you need the Multiplan 
diskette. Refer to the "Operating Information" section at the 
beginning of this volume for specific information about "How to 
Start Multiplan" and "How to Format a New Diskette." 

When Multiplan is loaded and ready, your screen will show the 
following display: 




COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C1 X 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



± 



X 



x: 



Status line] | Message line \ 



storage space 
remaining 



worksheet 
name 



What you see now is the basic Multiplan screen. Notice the row 
and column numbers, command line, message line, and status 



Multiplan 



line, as well as three highlighted areas for window number, cell 
pointer, and command menu. You'll learn more about the parts as 
you progress through this manual. 

Your screen displays only a small portion of the actual worksheet 
available to you. You can imagine the screen as a window to your 
worksheet: 




Fundamentals 



With Multiplan, it is possible to see information on different 
parts of the worksheet by viewing the sheet through more than 
one window at a time. You will learn how to do that in Chapter 5. 

Columns are numbered across the top. The illustrated screen 
now shows you 7 of the 63 worksheet columns. 

Rows are numbered down the left side of the display. The il- 
lustrated screen now shows you 20 of the 255 worksheet rows. 

Imagine lines running vertically between the column numbers 
and horizontally between the row numbers to form boxes on the 
worksheet. Each box is called a "cell." Cells hold the values of the 
worksheet. 

The cell that is available for immediate use, the active cell, is 
illuminated by the cell pointer. The cell pointer is currently in the 
upper left corner of the display; in row 1, column 1. A cell is 
identified by its location; the row number is always given first. 
Cell "row 1, column 1" (RlCl) is the active cell now. 



The Direction Keys 



Look at the Quick Reference Guide that came with Multiplan to 
find the direction keys (named UP, DOWN, LEFT, and RIGHT). 
Then, locate the keys on your keyboard. These keys are used to 
move the cell pointer around the worksheet (and for other 
functions you will learn about later). 



Multiplan 

Moving the Cell Pointer 



Press the RIGHT direction key once. Now look at the cell pointer. 
You moved it one cell to the right, to column 2. The pointer is now 
in row 1, column 2 (R1C2). That cell is now the active cell. 



#1 
if 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: §j§§|I Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C2 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Try the other direction keys. Watch how the cell pointer moves. 

Try to move the cell pointer to row 4, column 4 (R4C4). You can 
press the direction keys in any order you want. 



Fundamentals 



The Status Line 



The bottom line of the screen is called the status line. It tells you 
the location of the active cell and what it contains. Right now the 
status line should read R4C4, which is a location. If any other 
location is shown, use the direction keys to move the cell pointer 
to row 4, column 4. The space next to R4C4 in the status line 
shows the contents of the cell; right now the cell is blank so the 
space is empty. 



rr 



1 

2 
3 

4 111111111 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R4C4 100% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



status line: 
shows active 
cell row 4 
column 4 



Multiplan 



Look at the percent in the center of the status line. It tells you 
how much working memory is left. 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

1 

2 

3 

4 1^^^^ 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R4C4 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



storage space 
remaining 



100% Free means that all of working memory is available for 
your use. Check this percent as you continue your work. The 
number shows how much room is left to continue your work. 



10 



Fundamentals 



You can name worksheets for ready reference. The status line will 
also tell you the name of the worksheet currently in use. Until 
you give your sheet a name of your own, Multiplan calls it TEMP 
(for temporary). 



#1 1 



3 

4 iSiiiSill 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R4C4 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



name of 
worksheet 



Scrolling the Worksheet 



The illustrated screen shows you only 7 columns. What if you 
want to see column 15? Press the RIGHT direction key until the 
cell pointer reaches the right edge of the display. As you continue 
to press the RIGHT direction key, the pointer remains still, but 
the columns move to the left beneath it. This is called scrolling. 



11 



Multiplan 



Press the RIGHT direction key until column 15 is reached. 
(Columns 1 through 8 are no longer visible on the left.) You are 
now in row 4, column 15 (R4C15). 



r 



columns 
scrolled left 
beneath screen 




1 

2 

3 

4 -H 44 4t 4* _ _4t_ 4* __~ _4f 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R4C15 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



12 



Fundamentals 



Now press the DOWN direction key until the cell pointer reaches 
row 43. You are now in row 43, column 15 (R43C15). 



#1 9 10 


24 




25 ^-«n 




26 
27 




rows scroll 


28 


up beneath 


29 


screen 


30 




31 




32 




33 




34 




35 




36 




37 




38 




39 




40 




41 




42 




43 





12 



13 



15 



F4- 



-i- 
i — k- 

a-: 

— A-- 

— ±— 

tit- 

— A-- 
—k-~ 
—t- 

COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R43C15 100% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



pointer 
stays on 
screen 



Notice that during all of these movements, the cell pointer 
always stays on the screen. When the cell pointer reaches the 
edge of the display, the row numbers or the column numbers 
scroll across the screen. You could visualize this as sliding the 
window around the worksheet. 

You could return to the upper left corner of the worksheet ( RlCl ) 
by pressing the UP and LEFT direction keys until the cell pointer 
arrives there. But, there is another, faster way to move the cell 
pointer to RlCl. 

Look at the Quick Reference Guide again. Find the HOME key 
and try it. The cell pointer returns in one movement to the upper 
left corner (RlCl). 



13 



Multiplan 



The Goto (G) Command 



There is a way that is faster than using the direction keys to 
reach a cell on a different part of the worksheet. Press the G key. 
At the bottom of the screen on the command line (above the 
status line and message line), you should see the command: 



you type "G" 



(2) 

Multiplan 

displays 



GOTO: Name Row-col Window 



Select option or 
R1.C1 



e command letter 




100% Free 



Multiplan: TEMP 



row and column 
numbers will show 
where your pointer 
is at the moment 



highlight 
shows proposed 
response 



You can see that the Goto command now offers you a choice of 
subcommands: Name, Row-col(umn), or Window. (Names will 
be discussed in Chapter 4; Windows in Chapter 5. ) For now, we'll 
consider the Row-col subcommand. 

Look at the illuminated box on the command line. It shows 
which command is selected on a menu. 

If you now press R, you will see: 



edit cursor 

(active 

field) 




Multiplan 

proposed responses 
reflect location 
of your cell pointer 



GOTO row: 1 column: 1 



Enter a number 



R1C1 



100% Free 



Multiplan: TEMP 



message line 



14 



Fundamentals 



Multiplan is also displaying numbers in the command line in this 
example, one number by row and one number by column. The 
words row and column are the names of command "fields," which 
are where you tell Multiplan how you want a command carried 
out. Entries in these command fields are called "responses." 
When you first select a command, Multiplan proposes responses 
in the command fields; these responses are called "proposed res- 
ponses." Multiplan derives proposed responses from various as- 
pects of the worksheet and your previous responses in command 
fields. In this case, the proposed responses in the command fields 
are based on the current position of the cell pointer. 

Look at the message line below the command line. It reads, 
"Enter a number." The highlight (called the edit cursor) is in the 
first field ("row"). Respond with the last row on the worksheet, 
row 255: type 255. 

The command line should now look like this : 









number still shows 
location of your 
cell pointer 




you 
typed 


GOTO 

Enter a 
i R1C1 


I 

ow: 255 
number 


colu 


1 

mn: 1 



100% Free 



Multiplan: TEMP 



The edit cursor is now after the 255. Press TAB to move the 
cursor to the second field in the command line. 



V 



GOTO row: 255 column: 1 

n 
Enter a number 

R1C1 



100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



edit 
cursor 



15 



Multiplan 



With the edit cursor in the second field ("column"), pick the last 
column on the worksheet, column 63: type 63. The command line 
looks like this: 



GOTO row: 255 column: 631 



Enter a number 
R1C1 



100% Free 



Multiplan: TEMP 



You have now selected the cell (by its row and column numbers) 
to which you want the cell pointer to go. But, Multiplan does not 
carry out the command until you tell it to do so. Press RETURN. 
Your screen should look like this: 



#1 

251 
252 
253 
254 
255 



62 



63 



cell pointer 



command line 
ready for new 
command 



COM M AN D:j|j|jj| Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R255C63 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



16 



Fundamentals 



What if you change your mind? You have moved a different part 
of the worksheet into the screen by using the Goto command. 
Use this command to move quickly to any part of the worksheet. 

Suppose you decide you want row 155 instead of row 255. Press 
G then R again. When the edit cursor is in the first field for row 
number, simply type 155. If you want to change the last field for 
column number, use the TAB key to move the edit cursor to that 
field and type in the new number; for example, 3. Notice that as 
you type the 3, both digits of the 63 are replaced at once. 

Press RETURN to carry out the command. The cell pointer is now 
on row 155, column 3. 



Command Selection from Menus 



All Multiplan commands are selected as the Goto command was: 
you first select the initial letter of the command you want, then 
you choose one of several versions of the command (subcom- 
mands) with another letter. 

Note If you pressed a key that does not work as a command 

(an invalid command), such as the letter /, the com- 
mand line will not change, but you will see the message 
"Illegal option." 



edit cursor 
does not move 



COMMAND: lj|§§| Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Illegal option 
R155C3 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



If you have pressed other keys while you were moving 
the cell pointer, or if you pressed the wrong command 
letter, look at your Quick Eeference Guide to find the 
CANCEL key. Press it to clear the command line. 



17 



Multiplan 



The lists of commands (or subcommands) are called menus. In 
fact, any time you see choices on the command line, that's a 
menu. You can select an option from a menu, as the message in 
the message line will tell you to do ("Select an option"), by typing 
the first letter of the option you want. 

There's another way to select commands and other options. 
Press the SPACE bar and watch the command line. The highlight 
moves left to right, stopping at each command name. 

Press the SPACE bar until Goto is highlighted. Now press 
RETURN. The command line should look the same as it did 
when you typed G earlier. 

Similarly, you can press SPACE to move between "Name," 
"Row-col," and "Window." When the highlight rests on "Row-col", 
press RETURN and you'll see the "row" and "column" fields, as 
before. 

BACKSPACE can be used to back up (move right to left) through a 
menu. 

To save you time, Multiplan presents the subcommands in the 
order you are most likely to use them. If several subcommands 
are equally as likely to be used, they are presented in alphabetical 
order. 

You continue to select subcommands until the command line 
shows command fields. Command fields tell Multiplan how to 
perform the command. 



Multiplan Proposed Responses 



When the command line shows fields (for the Goto Row-col 
command the fields were "row" and "column"), each field will 
show a proposed response. In some fields, the proposed response 
is a blank. In some fields, a proposed response is given which 
looks like a typed-in response. In fields that have a menu of 
possible responses, the proposed response is shown either by the 
highlight (when the edit cursor is in that field ) or by parentheses 
(when the edit cursor is in another field). 



18 



Fundamentals 



Proposed responses often reflect the current settings, positions, 
and name of the worksheet that you are working with. If you 
agree with the proposed response, merely press the RETURN key 
to carry out the command or press TAB to move to the next 
command field. If you do not want the proposed response, you 
can change the command field to the response you want. 

When you are selecting a command or subcommand, the first 
choice shown is highlighted. This is also called a proposed 
response. If you agree with the proposed response, merely press 
the RETURN key. Or, press SPACE or BACKSPACE to move to 
another choice. The command line will change to display your 
choice. 



Filling in the Command Line: The TAB Key 



The command line will be divided into as many fields as there are 
choices to be made. The edit cursor shows you which field is 
active (available for immediate use). 

The edit cursor is moved from field to field by the TAB key, and 
will return to the first field after the last field has been reached. 

In commands with more than two fields, the TAB key moves the 
cursor like this: 



/ 




\/ 




N 


1st field 




2nd field 




3rd field 


V 








/ 



Look at the message line below the command line. Multiplan 
tells what kind of response you should make in each field. As you 
move from field to field, the message may change. For the Goto 
Row-col command it doesn't because both fields require the same 
type of response, but the message will change for other commands, 
as we'll see later. 



19 



Multiplan 

Carrying Out a Command: The RETURN Key 



Multiplan does not carry out the command until you tell it to do 
so. The RETURN key is used to carry out commands. 

Also, as shown earlier, the RETURN key is used after you use 
SPACE or BACKSPACE to move the highlight to a command or 
subcommand name. 

You can press the RETURN key whenever the responses in all the 
command fields are correct; you are not required to move the edit 
cursor first. 

When a command has been carried out, the command line 
reappears and waits for a new command from you. 



Canceling a Command: The CANCEL Key 



At any time before you press RETURN to carry out a command, 
you may press the CANCEL key to cancel the command. When 
you press the CANCEL key, the main command menu will reappear 
and the worksheet will appear as it did before you began the 
command. 



The Help (H) Command 



Microsoft Multiplan includes a special Help command to assist 
you while using Multiplan. 

The help information is always available to you. 

Let's use the Goto command to illustrate how the Help command 
works. 



20 



Fundamentals 



Select the Goto command by using SPACE; do not press RETURN. 
When the highlight rests on Goto, press the ? key. The Multiplan 
worksheet will be replaced by the help information for the Goto 
command. 



GOTO 

Used to move cell pointer over sheet. 

GOTO ROW-COL 

Moves cell pointer directly to specified row and column. If cell 

requested is already visible through window, window is not moved. 

Otherwise window is shifted to show the specified cell. 

GOTO NAME 

Moves cell pointer directly to the upper left corner of named area. 

The arrow keys may be used to step through the directory of names. 

GOTO WINDOW 

Moves cell pointer and designated cell to upper left hand corner of 

designated window. 



As you can see, the information given for "GOTO ROW-COL" 
describes what happened when you used the Goto Row-col 
command. 

Notice also that there is a new menu in the command line that 
looks like: 



HELP: Resume Start Next Previous 

Applications Commands Editing Formulas Keyboard 
Select option or type command letter 
R155C3 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



These subcommands are used to view various parts of the help 
information. 

For right now, press C (for Commands). The Goto information is 
replaced by the beginning of the COMMAND OVERVIEW, 
which describes how to select commands, as described earlier. 



21 



Multiplan 



Now, press N (for Next). The rest of the COMMAND OVER- 
VIEW is shown. You will often need to use the N subcommand 
because the information for many topics is longer than one 
screenful. 

Now, press R (for Resume). The Multiplan worksheet display 
resumes exactly as you left it; no changes were made. As you can 
see, the Goto command is still highlighted. 

If you try out the Help command, you'll begin to see how it 
adapts the information to your situation. Let's take Goto again. 

Select Goto (if you use SPACE to do this, press RETURN). With 
the "Name" subcommand highlighted, press ?. 

Now the screen shows only part of the Goto information, with 
GOTO NAME at the top. 

Press R (for Resume). Move the highlight to Row-col and press ?. 
Now GOTO ROW-COL is at the top. 

Whenever you request help information with the ? key, the 
information describing the command or subcommand you have 
selected is listed at the top of the screen. 

Instead of the ? key, you can also use the Help command. (First, 
you need to return to the main command menu— press CANCEL. ) 
When the main command menu is on display, press H. Multiplan 
replaces the worksheet display with the beginning of the Help 
information. 

Now, you can use the Help subcommands in the menu to move 
through the help information. 

From now on, whenever you need quick assistance, you know 
you can get help by pressing the ? key or by using the Help 
command. 

One final bit of help: remember looking at your Quick Reference 
Guide earlier for some of the keys? Select the Help command 
then press K (for Keyboard). The beginning of the list of keys 
appears. Use "Next" (press N) to view the rest of the list. 



22 



Fundamentals 



The Quit (Q) Command 



In your next Multiplan lesson, you will learn how to place infor- 
mation on the worksheet. To leave Multiplan now, however, use 
the Quit command. Press Q. Your screen will show: 



V. 



QUIT 

Enter Y to confirm 

R155C3 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



The command line asks you to confirm your decision to erase the 
screen by typing Y for Yes. Press Y. 

After you've learned to place information on the worksheet, 
you'll learn how to save your work before you use the Quit 
command. 

The screen is now blank. 



Summary 



In this session you learned: 

What the different parts of the screen look like and what 
they mean. 

Where the the direction keys are located on the keyboard, 
and what they do. 

How to move the cell pointer using the direction keys and 
HOME key. 

Where the status line is located, and what it tells you. 

How to scroll the worksheet by using the direction keys. 



23 



Multiplan 



How to get to another cell quickly by using the Goto (G) 
command. 

How commands are structured. 

How Multiplan helps you by presenting proposed responses. 

How to move the edit cursor between fields by using the 
TAB key. 

How to carry out a command by using the RETURN key. 

How to leave Multiplan by using the Quit (Q) command. 

How to request help by using the ? key and the Help (H) 
command. 



24 



Chapter 2 

Building a Worksheet 



The Worksheet Number Grid 28 

Entering Text: The Alpha (A) Command 30 

Correcting Typing Errors: The BACKSPACE 
Key 32 

Entering Data with the Direction Keys 33 

Column Width 37 

The Format Width Command 38 

Entering Numbers 40 

The Format Default Cells Command 43 

Alignment 44 

Formats 45 

Saving Work: The Transfer Save Command 47 

The Quit ( Q ) Command 49 

Summary 49 



25 



Building a Worksheet 



In Chapter 1, you learned how to start Multiplan and how the 
rows and columns are used to identify the cells of the worksheet. 

You also learned how to move the cell pointer to different parts of 
the worksheet by using the direction keys, and how to move the 
pointer quickly by using the Goto command. 

In this session you will begin to build a worksheet. You will learn 
how to change cell entries and correct mistakes as you go along. 
You will also begin work on a financial analysis for a model 
company— Spencer Ceramics. 

A large industrial firm is considering buying Spencer Ceramics 
and has requested a projected income statement; the firm has 
asked you for a summary operating budget, showing projected 
sales, costs, and gross profits. If, on the basis of this information, 
Spencer Ceramics looks like a good investment, the firm will 
send in its own accountants to do a more detailed survey. 



27 



Multiplan 

The Worksheet Number Grid 



Load the Multiplan diskette according to the instructions given 
in the Multiplan Quick Reference Guide. In a moment you will 
see the row and column numbers, as well as the command, 
message, and status lines appear on the screen. 



#112 3 4 5 6 7 

ijMlllSIl 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C1 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



The row and column numbers are merely guides for entering 
data. The information on the command, message, and status 
lines is there only to help you enter the data on the worksheet and 
will not appear on the final printed form. 



28 



Building a Worksheet 



To plan what needs to be done in your analysis of Spencer 
Ceramics, let's sketch a brief outline with pencil and paper, 
showing how the table will be set up. 



^feS%2%L S^e>ta*t#xL* 


















^^^kr^r jZitei»ft£. '5&?£'A>baK7^ 










fa- 


£fa{. 


mt. 


4«-\ 


m*- 


Jfr- 


jy- 


fy* 


3r* 


M 


77rt 


&*■ 


M 


f** 




' 








a 




















>^ 




























































d3">f 


















































































































































































































-&</*- 

















































































































































































































































With Multiplan, it is easy to expand the worksheet later to add 
more items, to insert rows or columns of space, or to delete 
unwanted items. It is even easy to change a figure, such as 
January sales ; Multiplan will recalculate the entire table auto- 
matically. 



29 



Multiplan 



Entering Text: The Alpha (A) Command 



To prepare the worksheet for Spencer Ceramics, begin by entering 
the headings for the rows and columns. You can add a title to the 
sheet later. 

Text and numbers are entered in different ways. Since Multiplan 
is designed to deal primarily with numbers and formulas, it 
automatically recognizes numbers as soon as they are typed. 
However, when you want to enter text or a title, you must 
specifically tell Multiplan that you want to enter text, and not a 
formula, into the cell. You do this by using the Alpha (A) 
command. 

Before you begin, look at the cell pointer on your screen. It 
should be in row 1, column 1 (RlCl ). If it is not, use the direction 
keys or the HOME key to place it there. 



7^ 



cell 
pointer 



#1 

* 1) 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C1 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



30 



Building a Worksheet 



Since you will later need some room at the top of your table for 
the names of the months, move the cell pointer down two rows. 
The pointer is now in row 3, column 1 (R3C1). 



m" 



i 
T 






V 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C1 100% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



Now press A. You will see: 



ALPHA: 

Enter text (no double quotes) 

R3C1 100% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



31 



Multiplan 



The command line indicates selection of the Alpha command, 
and the message line informs you that the next step is to enter 
text. Begin by entering Sales in column 1. 

Type Sales. 

Now you see: 



ALPHA: .Sales 

Enter text (no double quotes) 

R3C1 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Correcting Typing Errors: The BACKSPACE Key 



The edit cursor is located immediately after the text you have 
typed. Before you press RETURN to enter the text in the cell, try 
editing the word Sales by using the BACKSPACE key. Press 
BACKSPACE three times. You will see that the edit cursor deletes 
the character to its left as it moves. You now have: 





BACKSPACE 
deletes as 
it moves 


100% Free 


Multiplan: TEMP j 


ALPHA: Sajjjf f\ \ 


Enter text (no double quotes) 
R3C1 





32 



Building a Worksheet 



This time type the word incorrectly. Finish typing Sakes. Notice 
that the new characters appear just to the left of the edit cursor. 
When you've finished typing, you have: 



ALPHA: Sakes 

Enter text (no double quotes) 

R3C1 100% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



Now use BACKSPACE again and correct the text to Sales once 
again, so that the screen looks like: 



ALPHA: Sales 

Enter text (no double quotes) 

R3C1 100% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



Entering Data with the Direction Keys 



Now that the word Sales is correct, you can enter it into the cell in 
two ways: 

1. You could first press RETURN, and Sales would appear in 
the cell R3C1. Try it to see. You now need to press a 
direction key to move the pointer to the next cell. Before 
you press a direction key, consider the second way to enter 
data. 



33 



Multiplan 



A faster way to enter text is to press the DOWN direction 
key (instead of RETURN), moving the pointer to the next 
cell in which you want to work. Sales will be entered 
automatically. Try it. Press A ( for Alpha ) ; Sales now appears 
next to ALPHA: in the command line. Now press the 
DOWN direction key. Sales reappears in cell R3C1, and the 
cell pointer moves down to R4C1. (You may, of course, use 
any direction key; your choice will depend on the cell you 
want to use next.) Notice the command line; it shows: 



ALPHA/VALUE: 

Enter text or value 

R4C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



The next key you press selects either the Alpha command or 
the Value command, just as if you pressed A or V. 

If you type any digit, 0-9, or press one of the characters = 
(equals), + (plus), — (minus), . (period), ( (left parenthesis), 
or " (quotation mark), you select the Value command. All other 
keys select the Alpha command. 

This feature will save you many keystrokes as you continue to 
work with Multiplan, especially when entering a sequence of text 
and values in successive cells. 



34 



Building a Worksheet 



To enter Cost, move the cell pointer down to row 5 in column 1 

(R5C1). 



r 



#1 1 

1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 "*" 

5 lllljlilf 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 

20 
ALPHA/VALUE: 

Enter text or value 
R5C1 



T 
enters 

data 



99% Free 



Multiplan: TEMP 



Multiplan is waiting for your next instruction. Tell it that you 
want to enter more text by beginning to type Cost. As soon as 
you press C, the command line changes from ALPHA/VALUE : 
to ALPHA:, and the message line changes from "Enter text or 
value" to "Enter text." 



ALPHA: C 

Enter text (no double quotes) 
R5C1 



3% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Finish typing Cost. 



35 



Multiplan 



To enter Cost in row 5, column 1 ( R5C1 ), press the DOWN direction 
key. Continue to press the DOWN direction key until the screen 
looks like this: 



7^ 



#112 3 4 5 6 

1 
2 
3 Sales 

4 

5|Cost I 

6 l_ JK _"l 

7| --I— ' 

8 ~ 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
ALPHA/VALUE: 

Enter text or value 

R8C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



36 



Building a Worksheet 



Now enter Gross Profits in cell R8C1 (your current position) 



m; 



1 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



8 Gross Prof 
9 



\ 



column 
too narrow 



10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R8C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Column Width 



Look at row 8, column 1. You can see that the column is not wide 
enough to accommodate all the characters in Gross Profits. 
Multiplan has not lost any of the information you have entered. 
It displays as much of it as it can in the space it has. If you give it 
more space, it will display the remainder of the characters. 

When you started Multiplan, the column width was set at 10 
characters. Column width is easily changed using the Format 
Width command. 



37 



Multiplan 

The Format Width Command 

Press F. On the command line you will see : 

FORMAT: Celts Default Options Width 

Select option or type command letter 

R8C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



At this point you need the Format Width subcommand. The 
other subcommands will be explained later. For now, however, 
press W. You will see: 



proposed 
response: 
1st field 



FORMAT WIDTH in chars or d(efault): d column: 1 through: 1 

Enter a number, or d for default 

R8C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



In the first field, Multiplan shows "d" (for default) as the proposed 
response, but you may specify the number of characters of width 
you want. Since 10 characters (which is what you now have) is 
not wide enough to show your heading completely, choose the 
width you will need. Gross Profits has 13 characters ( 12 letters 
and 1 space). Select 15 characters of width to give yourself 
enough room. Type 15. Now you see: 



FORMAT WIDTH in chars or d(efault): 15 column: 1 through: 1 

Enter a number, or d for default 

R8C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



38 



Building a Worksheet 



Multiplan lets you select the columns you want to widen. The 
proposed response is to widen column 1 through column 1. As 
you only want to widen column 1 at this time, accept the proposed 
responses; simply press RETURN (you don't need to TAB or 
change any responses). 



r« 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



; ^ 



column width 
now accommodates 
cell entry 



V 



8 Gross Profits 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R8C1 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Gross Profits may now be seen fully in column 1 because that 
column has been widened. Your sheet is now ready for the first 
numbers. 



39 



Multiplan 

Entering Numbers 



The sales figures for Spencer Ceramics show that the average 
amount of monthly sales last year was $20,000. 

Move the cell pointer to row 3, column 2 (R3C2) opposite Sales. 
Type 20000. (Use the numbers at the top of the keyboard.) 

Note Multiplan handles commas in a special way (using the 

Format Options command ), so you do not use commas 
(20,000) or spaces (20 000) when entering numbers. 
Also, you do not have to tell Multiplan that you want 
to enter a number, as you do for text (to enter text, 
you use the Alpha command). As soon as you type a 
digit from to 9, Multiplan treats it as if you had 
selected the Value command. 

Do not type the $ now. Pill in all the figures first. You'll 
learn how to change them to dollars later. 

Look at the command line. 



command line 
shows "value" 
after 0...9 



VALUE: 20000 

Enter a formula 

R3C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



40 



Building a Worksheet 



Press the DOWN direction key. Now you have: 



#1 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



j $20000.00-) 



8 Gross Profits 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
ALPHA/VALUE: 
Enter text or formula 
R4C2 



7A 



99% Free 



Multiplan:TEMP 



Notice that the ALPHA/ VALUE: command line appears again, 
just as it did when you pressed the DOWN direction key after 
entering the titles. 

Spencer Ceramics' costs were $15,000 per month. Enter 15000 in 
row 5, column 2, like this: 

1. Move the pointer to the desired cell (row 5, column 2). 

2. Type 15000. 

3. Press RETURN to enter the number in the cell. 



41 



Multiplan 

Now your screen should look like this: 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

"1 


\ 


2 

3 Sales 20000 

4 

5 Cost 15000 

6 






7 

8 Gross Profits 
9 
10 






11 




12 




13 




14 




15 




16 




17 




18 




19 




20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 




R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 


J 



Since all the figures you are working with on this project have to 
do with finances, you may decide that it would be better to have 
all the numbers displayed as dollars. It's easy to make the 
change. 



42 



Building a Worksheet 

The Format Default Cells Command 



Multiplan offers a wide selection of formats in which cell entries 
may be displayed. The command used for this purpose is Format. 

Press F. You will see: 



FORMAT: Cells Default Options Width 

Select option or type command letter 

R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



This time you want to change the format of all cells, so choose 
Default. 

The command line shows: 



FORMAT DEFAULT: O&Hs Width 

Select option or type command letter 

R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Now select the proposed response "Cells." The command line 
now shows: 



FORMAT DEFAULT CELLS alignment: Ctr Gen Left Right 

format code: Cont Exp Fix(Gen)lnt $ * % # of decimals: 
Select option 
R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



In the first field you will choose the alignment setting. 



43 



Multiplan 



Alignment 



Alignment means where text and numbers are placed in a cell; 
flush with the left edge, flush with the right edge, centered, or a 
mix of right and left (called General). 

The "alignment" field offers you these choices: 

Settings Examples Effect 

Ctr 



Gen 



Left 



Right 



Sales 

$1000.25 

$50.25 


text and numbers 
centered 


Sales 

$1000.25 
$50.25 


text flush left 
numbers flush right 


Sales 

$1000.25 

$50.25 


text and numbers 
flush left 


Sales 
$1000.25 
$50.25 


text and numbers 
flush right 



Any alignment choice that sets the numbers to the right would 
be acceptable because you want the decimal points to be in line 
with each other. Therefore, you could choose Gen or Right with 
the same effect on the numbers. However, because this command 
can affect all cells, including column 1, all of your text would be 
moved to the right, too. Since the proposed response (Gen) is 
acceptable, press TAB to move to the next field where you'll 
choose the format of the display. 



FORMAT DEFAULT CELLS alignment: Ctr(Gen)Left Right 

format code: Cont Exp Fix Sen Int $ * % # of decimals: 
Select option 
R5C2 99% Free 



Multiplan: TEMP 



TAB to 
3rd field 



44 



Building a Worksheet 



Formats 



The second field contains several choices for the format of the 
display. At this point, you know you want the format code for 
dollars. Some of the other choices are quite specialized. The 
following chart gives a brief summary of these formats; they are 
thoroughly explained in the "Command Directory" in Part 2. 



Settings 


Meanings 


Examples 


Cont 


Continuous 


ISpencer Celramicsl 


Exp 


Scientific 


1.4301E-23 

4.67E5 


Fix 


Fixed Point 


4.513 


Gen 


General 


text and numbers 
shown in standard 
format 


Int 


Integer 


3.1416 shown as 3 


$ 


Dollars 


$20000.00 
($150.00) 


* 


Bar Graph 


3 shown as *** 


% 


Percent 


.0513 shown as 5.13% 


- 


( Do not change 
format) 





45 



Multiplan 



Choose the dollar format instead of the proposed response by 
typing a dollar sign ($). 



FORMAT DEFAULT CELLS alignment: Ctr(Gen)Left Right 

format code: Cont Exp Fix Gen Int jj * % # of decimals: 
Select option 
R5C2 I 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



cursor 
moves 
to$ 



Selecting the dollar format automatically gives you two decimal 
places, so you do not need to specify a number in the last field. 

As soon as you have made certain that all your choices are 
correct, press RETURN to carry out your choices. 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 

" 1 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost $15000.00 

6 
7 

8 Gross Profits 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



r\ 



46 



Building a Worksheet 



You have made three choices in the Format command: 

1. You selected Format Default Cells to choose settings for all 
cells. 

2. You selected the proposed alignment of the contents of the 
cells. 

3. You selected the display format for dollars ($), which 
automatically gave you two decimal places. 

Note You can change the way numbers are displayed any 

time you like without changing their values. For ex- 
ample, you could show the same value as 3, 3E0, 
$3.00, or 300%, or even "***", depending on the format 
setting you select. See "Format" in Chapter 9, "Com- 
mand Directory," in Part 2. 

You have learned about formatting in this session, and you 
will learn more in the next chapter. You will also use a more 
detailed breakdown of costs to make a more comprehensive 
forecast for Spencer Ceramics. 



Saving Work: The Transfer Save Command 



Unless you save your worksheet, you will have to start over the 
next time you use Multiplan. To save your worksheet, use the 
Transfer Save command. Press T. The command line now shows : 



TRANSFER: Load Save Clear Delete Options Rename 

Select option or type command letter 

R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



47 



Multiplan 

To save your work, choose "Save" by pressing S. 



TRANSFER SAVE filename: TEMP 

Enter a filename 

R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Give your worksheet a meaningful filename, so that it will be 
easy to remember when you load the sheet in the next session. 



Type SPENCER. 



TRANSFER SAVE filename: SPENCER 

Enter a filename 

R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



You have replaced the name TEMP, which Multiplan had given 
the sheet in the absence of another name. From now on, you must 
ask for this file by its exact name when you want to load it, or 
Multiplan will not be able to find it. 

Press RETURN to complete the command. Notice that the sheet 
name on the status line has changed to reflect the new sheet 
name. 



COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



new 

sheet 

name 



48 



Building a Worksheet 

The Quit (Q) Command 



To leave Multiplan, press Q ( for Quit ), as you did at the end of the 
last session: 



QUIT: 

Enter Y to confirm 

R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Be sure you have saved your work with the Transfer Save 
command before you press Y. 

Press Y. The screen should now be blank. 

When you begin the next session, you will use the Transfer Load 
command to pick up where you left off. 



Summary 



In this session you learned: 

How to use the Alpha (A) command to enter text. 

How to use BACKSPACE to correct typing errors by 
deleting characters. 

How to enter data using the direction keys. 

How to change the width of columns using the Format 
Width command. 

How to enter numbers in cells. 



49 



Multiplan 



How to change cells to the dollar format using the Format 
Default Cells command. 

What alignment settings are available. 

What format settings are available. 

How to save your work using the Transfer Save command. 



50 



Chapter 3 
Entering Formulas 



Loading a File: The Transfer Load Command 53 

The Insert Command 55 

Entering Additional Text 57 

Entering Additional Numbers 59 

Aligning Cell Contents 60 

Ranges: The Colon 62 

The Blank Command 65 

Formulas 6Q 

Building a Formula 67 

Reviewing or Changing a Formula 76 

The Status Line: Cell Contents 76 

Drawing Lines 78 

The Transfer Save Command (Review) 80 

Summary 81 



51 



Entering Formulas 



In the last session you learned to put text (using the Alpha 
command) and numbers into cells by pointing to them with the 
cell pointer, typing the information in the command line, then 
entering it into the cell by pressing either RETURN or one of the 
direction keys. 

You also learned to use the Format command to display numbers 
in dollar format. 

At the end of the session you saved your worksheet in a file that 
you named SPENCER. 

In this session you will get more practice in entering words and 
numbers and in formatting cells. Most important, you will learn 
to enter formulas. 



Loading a File: The Transfer Load Command 



When you start your Multiplan program, you will see that the 
row and column numbers appear on the screen, but not the 
information you typed in earlier. You have to load the file before 
that information will appear. Press T(for Transfer). The command 
line will show: 



TRANSFER: Load Save Clear Delete Options Rename 



V 



Select option or type command letter 

R1C1 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Multiplan has selected "Load" as its proposed response. Since 
you want to load your file into Multiplan, merely press RETURN 
(or press L). The command line will show: 



TRANSFER LOAD filename: 



V 



Enter a filename, or use direction keys to view directory 

R1CJ 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



53 



Multiplan 



Type the name of the file you wish to load, SPENCER. You 
should see: 



TRANSFER LOAD filename: SPENCER 

Enter a filename, or use direction keys to view directory 

R1C1 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



Then, press RETURN. Your file looks like this when it is loaded: 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

'*""l 

2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost $15000.00 

6 
7 

8 Gross Profits 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R5C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Notice that the cell pointer is at cell R5C2, just as it was when 
you saved this worksheet at the end of the last chapter. 



54 



Entering Formulas 

The Insert Command 



Look at the following breakdown of Spencer Ceramics' monthly 
costs: 

Material = $ 4,000.00 
Labor = $ 7,000.00 

Overhead = $ 4,000.00 

Total Costs = $15,000.00 

Your worksheet must be expanded to make room for this new 
information. You will need space for Material, Labor, and Over- 
head, as well as Total Costs. It would be logical to place this 
information between the Cost and the Gross Profits titles. To 
prepare for inserting this new information, move the cell pointer 
to R6C2. 

To insert either empty rows or empty columns, use the Insert 
command. Press /. 



INSERT: Row Column 

Select option or type command letter 

R6C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The proposed response, "Row," is what you want. (You need to 
add some extra rows of space. ) Press RETURN to select "Row." 



INSERT ROW # of rows: 1 before row: 6 

between columns: 1 and: 63 
Enter a number 
R6C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



55 



Multiplan 



Notice that the proposed responses are based on the position of 
the cell pointer. Because the cell pointer is at row 6, Multiplan 
proposes the insertion of 1 row of space before row 6, extending 
from column 1 through 63; in other words, across the whole 
worksheet. 

The new figures will require at least 5 rows (4 for figures and 1 for 
the total costs). Allow yourself enough room by adding 7 rows. 
Press 7. 



INSERT ROW # of rows: 7 


before row: 6 






between columns: 1 


and: 63 






Enter a number 








R6C2 


99% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



Look at the second field. In the "before row" field, you tell 
Multiplan where to insert the new space by filling in which row 
the space should go in front of. You need the space between row 5 
and row 8. You may put the new rows in front of row 6 or 7 or 8. 
Since the proposed response of row 6 is all right, we don't need to 
change it. 

Multiplan also proposes that you insert the new rows of space 
across all of the columns by saying, "between columns 1 and 63." 
Since you want the space to extend across your worksheet, you 
also do not need to type any numbers in either the third or fourth 
fields. Just press RETURN to carry out the command as it stands. 



56 



Now you see: 



Entering Formulas 



#1 


1 


2 3 4 5 6 7 


^ 


2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 




$20000.00 






$15000.00 




7 
8 I 


T~ 






9 I 


i 
I 
i 








10 j 


7 new rows 




11 


i 


added 






12 I 










13 | 


i 
I 






14 y 


Profits 






15 Gross 






16 








17 








18 








19 








20 








COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 






Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 




R6C2 




99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



Entering Additional Text 



You will be able to add the new information in the space you have 
created. Under Cost (row 5), you will type the subcategories of 
Material in row 6, Labor in row 7, and Overhead in row 8. Leave a 
row of space between Overhead and Total Costs for a line, and 
type Total Costs in row 10. The procedure is the same as given in 
Chapter 2, and is summarized here: 

Move the cell pointer to row 6, column 1 (using either the 
direction keys or the Goto command). Use the Alpha command. 

Press A (or RETURN). 

Type Material. If you make a mistake in entering text, BACK- 
SPACE and type over the mistake. 



57 



Multiplan 



Press the DOWN direction key to enter Material. Your screen now 
looks like this: 



1 



7^ 



1 

2 

3 Sales 
4 

5 Cost 

6 [Material 
7 



$20000.00 



$15000.00 



™:¥--- 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
ALPHA/VALUE: 

Enter text or value 
R7C1 



99% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



As in Chapter 2, the ALPHA/VALUE: command reappears 
after pressing a direction key, and the next character you type 
selects either the Alpha or the Value command. 

Enter Labor in row 7 and Overhead in row 8 by simply typing the 
title then pressing the DOWN direction key. 



58 



Entering Formulas 



Leave row 9 empty for now, and move the cell pointer to row 10. 
Enter Total Costs, as you entered Labor and Overhead. Your 
screen should now look like this: 



#1 



1 



1 

2 

3 Sales 
4 

5 Cost 

6 Material 



$20000.00 



$15000.00 



7i Labor « | 

8JJ0verhead~i^]] 
9U * « 

10 !j o i?!_9 os l2 jJj 

11 - -T 

12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
ALPHA/VALUE: 



V 



Enter text or value 
R11C1 



99% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Entering Additional Numbers 

Now you are ready to enter the numbers. 

Move the cell pointer to row 6, column 2. Notice that the 
ALPHA/VALUE : command remains on the command line. 

Type 4000. 

Press the DOWN direction key. 



59 



Multiplan 



Type 7000, and press the DOWN direction key. 

For the last number (by Overhead), type 4000, and press RE- 
TURN. You will see: 



#1 1 

m " 1 


2 3 4 5 6 7 


"\ 


2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 


$20000.00 




$15000.00 




6 Material 


[jaooo.(kQ 

J $7000.001, 
$4000.00* 




7 Labor 

8 Overhead 
9 

10 Total Costs 








11 






12 






13 






14 






15 Gross Profits 






16 






17 






18 






19 






20 






COMMAND: Alpha 


Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 




R8C2 


99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



Aligning Cell Contents 



To make it clear that the four entries under Cost (Material, 
Labor, Overhead, and Total Costs), are subcategories, you will 
want to align them to the right side of column 1. First position 
the cell pointer on the first cell to be aligned (row 6, column 1). 



60 



Entering Formulas 
To align cells, use the Format command. Press F. 



FORMAT: Cells Default Options Width 

Select option or type command letter 

R6C1 "Material" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



From the command line choices, choose "Cells" (by pressing Cor 
RETURN). The command line now shows: 



FORMAT cells: R6C1 alignment: (Def)Ctr Gen Left Right - 

format code:(Def)Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R6C1 "Material" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The first field ("cells") shows the "active" cell (where the cell 
pointer is located, R6C1 ). We want first to align this single cell to 
the right to see how it looks. So, leave the proposed response as 

is. 

TAB to the next field ("alignment"). To select an alignment here, 
use the same method you used for the Format Default Cells 
command in Chapter 2. Press E (for Right). The command line 
shows: 



FORMAT cells: R6C1 alignment: Def Ctr Gen Left Right - 

format code:(Def)Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 
Select option 
R6C1 "Material" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



61 



Multiplan 



The proposed response in the "format code" field is suitable and 
the "# of decimals" doesn't concern us now, so press RETURN. 
You will see: 



a 



1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 Material 

7 Labor ^ 

8 Overhead 



10 Total Costs 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 



^ 



$20000.00 

$15000.00 
$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 



text aligns 
right 



COMMAND: Alpha.Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
P.6C1 "Material" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



You also want to align rows 7 through 10 in column 1 to the right. 
You can align these four cells at once by using the symbol for 
"range," as explained in the next section. 



Ranges: The Colon 

With Microsoft Multiplan, you can perform tasks on more than 
one cell at a time by typing two cell locations separated by a 
colon. Let's try this with Labor, Overhead, and Total Costs in 
column 1. 

1. Move the cell pointer to Labor ( R7C1 ). 

2. Press F (for Format). 



62 



Entering Formulas 



3. Press C (for Cells). You can now see R7C1 in the "cells" 
field: 



FORMAT cells: R7C1 alignment: (Def)Ctr Gen Left Right - 

format code:(Def)Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R7C1 "Labor" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press the colon (:). Notice that the response in the field 
is not deleted. Multiplan helps you with entering a range 
that starts at the active cell. 

Now let Multiplan do the work for you. Press the DOWN 
direction key until the cell pointer is in row 10 (R10C1). 
Notice the response in the "cells" field. It shows the range 
of cells you want to change. 



#1 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



7^\ 



$20000.00 



$15000.00 
Material $4000.00 



$7000.00 
$4000.00 



7JLabor__ _~l 
sfoverhead T ' 

10 Total Costs ' 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
FORMAT cells: R7C1:R10C1 alignment: (Def)Ctr Gen Left Right - 

format code: (Def)Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R10C1 "Total Costs" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



shows range 
of cells 



63 



Multiplan 



6. TAB to the second field ("alignment"). In the second field, 
you again want to change the proposed response from 
"Def" (which aligns words to the left) to "Right." 

7. Press R. 

8. As before, the proposed response in the other two fields are 
suitable, so press RETURN. 

Your screen should now show you the new alignment for rows 
6 through 10 in column 1: 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost $15000.00 

6 Material $4000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 
9 

10 Total Costs 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R7C1 "Labor" 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



In Chapter 4, we will discuss "ranges" and other kinds of references 
to cells more fully. 



64 



Entering Formulas 

The Blank Command 

Now you are ready to enter values for Total Costs in row 10. 

When you do so, you will have two rows showing total costs. You 
started with Cost in row 5, and now you have another row for 
Total Costs. To correct this duplication, you will want to blank 
out the number $15000.00 in row 5, column 2. The worksheet will 
be clearer if the heading Cost is left as a major category heading 
in column 1, but you want the number to appear next to Total 
Costs. 

Use the Blank command to blank out the $15000.00. First move 
the cell pointer to row 5, column 2. 

Press B (for Blank). The command line shows: 



BLANK cells: R5C2 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R5C2 15000 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Look at the cell number highlighted by the edit cursor. It shows 
you that the cell pointer is in row 5, column 2. All you have to do 
is press RETURN to erase the contents of that cell. Watch R5C2 
as you press RETURN. 



65 



Multiplan 



#1 
1 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 


\ 


2 

3 Sales 


$°0000 00 




4 




active 






5 Cost 




cell is 
now blank 






6 


Material $4000.00 






7 


Labor $7000.00 








8 
9 

10 1 


Overhead $4000.00 






fotal Costs 




11 






12 






13 






14 






15 Gross Profits 




16 






17 






18 






19 






20 






COMMAND 


Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 




R5C2 


99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



You can also use this command to blank out a group of cells. You 
can first press B (for Blank), then specify a range, as you did 
earlier for the Format Cells command. But we don't need to do 
this now. 



Formulas 



Now you are ready to enter a formula for calculating the total 
costs. The total costs in row 10 will be figured by adding the 
three rows above it. Move the cell pointer down next to Total 
Costs, (row 10, column 2). 



66 



Entering Formulas 

Building a Formula 

You might be tempted not to bother with a formula. After all, you 
could just enter $15000.00 because you already know that number 
belongs there. You need a formula, however, because costs may 
change; you need something that will work for other months, 
too, so that you don't have to calculate costs yourself every time. 

Without touching any keys for a moment, think about what you 
will be doing. Point with your fingers to row 10, column 2 (next to 
Total Costs) on your display screen. 

Think: 

"Total Costs (row 10, column 2) . . . 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

"™~1 

2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost 

6 Material $4000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 

9 h 

10 Total Costs A 

11 ▼ 
12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R10C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



V 



67 



Multiplan 



'will be the sum of (now point to row 6, column 2) Material 



#1 



7^ 



Sales 



Cost 



$20000.00 




Total Costs r - 



g 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R6C2 4000 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



68 



Entering Formulas 
"plus (now point to row 7, column 2) Labor . . . 

' #1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 



1 

2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost 

6 Materiair$4000.00" 

7 Labor 

8 Overhead $4000.00 



I $4000.00 r^*^ 

~$7000.60U*'A 

$4000.00 ▼) 

i I— ' 



10 Total Costsl 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R7C2 7000 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



69 



Multiplan 

"plus (now point to row 8, column 2) Overhead." 



#1 1 2 

1 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost 

6 Material r $4000.0(f 

7 Labor l$700O00_" 

8 Overhead \ 
9 

10 Total Costs] 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R8C2 4000 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 






70 



Entering Formulas 

You will follow the same procedure using your cell pointer. 
Say to yourself: Do this: 



"Total Costs. 



1. Place the cell pointer next to 
Total Costs (row 10, column 
2). 



#i 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



$20000.00 



Material $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 



1 
"Total Costs. . . 



7 
8 
9 

10 Total Costs J 

11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND- Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R10C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



". . .equals. . . 



"equals 



2. Press =. (To begin a formula 
in Multiplan, press either = 
or V for the Value command. ) 
Look at the command line. 



VALUE: I 



Enter a formula 



R10C2 



99% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



71 



Multiplan 



"row 6 (Material) 



Move the cell pointer up 4 
rows to row 6. (Watch the 
formula being built on the 
command line. The entry 
R[— 4]C is a formula to tell 
Multiplan to go up 4 rows in 
this column to find a value). 



#1 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



7^ 



$20000.00 



Material $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 



3 
. Material. 



10 Total Costs 

11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
VALUE: R[-4]C 

Enter a formula 
R6C2 4000 



I 



% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



"plus 



4. Press + . Watch how the for- 
mula builds. Notice that the 
cell pointer moves back to its 
original position. 



72 



Entering Formulas 



"row 7 (Labor) . . . 

"plus . . . 

"row 8 (Overhead):' 



5. Move the cell pointer to row 7. 

6. Press +. 

7. Move the cell pointer next to 
Overhead. 



#1 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 



$20000.00 



r«Annn 



Material ! $4000.00 
Labor [j 700000 S 
Overhead 5 4 x5b.06~ 



Total Costs njN ^.^ , 



7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
VALUE: R[-4]C + R[-3]C+R[-2]C 

Enter a formula 
R8C2 4000 



. Overhead. 



99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



73 



Multiplan 



Press RETURN. You will see 
$15000.00 now appear next 
to Total Costs. Look at the 
status line to see the formula 
Multiplan used to calculate 
the total. 



■ 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



$20000.00 



Material $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 

Total Costs $15000 00 -<- 



7^ 



8 
press RETURN 



Total Costs 



15000 



10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND- Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R10C2 R[-4]C+R[-3]C+R[-2]C 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



74 



Entering Formulas 



The dollar format you selected in Chapter 2 with the Format 
Default Cells command automatically gives you two decimal 
places. Because of this default setting, any numbers you enter 
will appear in dollars unless you specifically change them with 
the Format Cells command. 

The formula you see on the status line is the way Multiplan 
states what you said as you built the formula. Multiplan states: 



12 3 4 5 6 7 

R10C2 = R[-4]C + FV-3JC + R[-2]C 

1. "This cell is the active cell. 

2. It contains . . . 

3. the cell 4 rows up from here (or 'this row minus 4') in this 
column . . . 

4. plus . . . 

5. the cell 3 rows up from here . . . 

6. plus . . . 

7. the cell 2 rows up from here." 

Note When a formula in Multiplan does not give a row or 

column number, it means "this" row or "this" column. 



75 



Multiplan 

Reviewing or Changing a Formula 



At some time later, you may forget exactly how you calculated 
the figure in a particular cell. You can see the contents of a cell by 
moving the cell pointer to it and looking at the status line. 

If you wish to change the formula, place the cell pointer on that 
cell and use the Edit command (press E) to bring the formula 
onto the command line. Then use the CHARACTER RIGHT and 
CHARACTER LEFT keys with the BACKSPACE key to make the 
changes you want. (You can also use the DELETE key; refer to 
your Quick Reference Guide or Help information to find CHAR- 
ACTER RIGHT, CHARACTER LEFT, and DELETE. CHARACTER 
RIGHT moves the edit cursor one character to the right; CHAR- 
ACTER LEFT moves the edit cursor one character to the left; 
DELETE erases the character that is highlighted rather than the 
character to its left, as BACKSPACE does.) 

These four keys are part of the editing keys that Multiplan pro- 
vides you. All the editing keys are explained in Part 2, Chap- 
ter 8, in the "Editing" section. In a nutshell, with the editing 
keys you can move the highlight around the command line, insert 
new text, and delete or replace old text. 



The Status Line: Cell Contents 



If a formula is too long to be shown in full on the status line, use 
Edit to place the formula in the command line so that you can 
review all of it. 



76 



Entering Formulas 



The status line shows what is actually contained in the active 
cell. While the active cell may display the number $15000.00, the 
status line will tell us what formula governs that cell. The value 
displayed for the cell may change, but the formula will remain 
constant. If, for example, the cost of materials were $6000 instead 
$4000, the figure displayed in the Total Costs cell would change 
to 17000.00. Yet, the status line would still show the same 
formula. 

Try it. Move the cell pointer to R6C2 ($4000.00). Type 6000. 
Press RETURN and watch the display change to the following: 



#1 1 2 

1 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 
5 Cost 



6 Material $6000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 
9 



you change value 



Multiplan recalculates 



10 Total Costs $17000.00 -*— 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R6C2 6000 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Total Costs now shows $17000.00. Now, change the cost of ma- 
terials back to $4000.00 and watch Total Costs change back to 
$15000.00. 



77 



Multiplan 

Drawing Lines 

To make the worksheet easier to read, draw a line in row 9, 
column 2, using dashes to separate the subcategories from Total 
Costs. Follow the same procedure you used earlier to enter text: 

1. Move the cell pointer to row 9. 

2. Press A (for Alpha). 

Note If you missed this step and tried to enter the dash 

without the Alpha command, the command line would 
show VALUE and be ready for a negative number or a 
formula. If you did do this, press the CANCEL key, 
and start this step over again. 

3. Type the dash 10 times to fill the spaces in the cell: 



ALPHA: 



Enter text (no double quotes) 

R9C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



78 



Entering Formulas 
Press RETURN. You now see: 



#1 


1 2 


2 




3 Sales 


$20000.00 


4 




5 Cost 




6 


Material $4000.00 


7 


Labor $7000.00 


8 


Overhead $4000.00 


9 
10 




Total Costs $15000.00 



11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R9C2 " " 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



You will learn later how to extend this line across the entire 
worksheet, or across as many columns as you wish. Later, you 
will also get more practice in entering formulas using the cell 
pointer. 



79 



Multiplan 



The Transfer Save Command (Review) 



Save your work by using the Transfer Save command as you did 
before: 

Press T. The command line shows: 



TRANSFER: Load Save Clear Delete Options Rename 

99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Select option or type command letter 
R9C2 " " 



Choose Save by pressing S. Now the command line shows : 



TRANSFER SAVE filename: SPENCER 



Enter a filename 
R9C2 "---- 



99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The proposed response is the last filename used, SPENCER. 
Since that is what you want, press RETURN. 



TRANSFER SAVE filename: SPENCER 



Overwrite existing file? 



R9C2 



3% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Multiplan 
as/rs you 
to confirm 



80 



Entering Formulas 



Multiplan is now asking you if you want the worksheet on the 
screen to replace the one in the file. Since you do want your new 
work saved, press Y (for Yes). The command line will now return 
to: 



COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R9C2 " " 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Any time you select a command that can affect a worksheet as a 
whole, Multiplan will ask you to confirm the action by pressing 
Y. This is true of worksheets on the screen and worksheets in a 
disk file. These actions include, for example, saving a file under a 
name previously used, or quitting a Multiplan session. 

Your worksheet has been saved. Leave Multiplan for this session 
by typing Q (Quit) and Y (Yes) to confirm. 



Summary 



In this session you learned: 

How to load your file. 

How to create more space by inserting empty rows using 
the Insert command (/). 

How to enter additional text using the Alpha command 
with the direction keys. 

How to enter additional numbers. 

How to align the contents of specific cells. 

How to specify a group of cells using the range symbol 
(colon). 



81 



Multiplan 



How to erase the contents of specific cells using the Blank 
(B) command. 

How to build formulas using the cell pointer and how to 
read the formula on the status line. 

How to use the cell pointer and the status line to review a 
formula, and how to use the cell pointer and the Edit 
command (E) to change a formula. 

How to draw a line using the dash (— ). 

How to save your new work with the Transfer Save com- 
mand (writing over old work). 



82 



Chapter 4 

Naming Cells and Copying 



The Transfer Load Command (Review) 85 

Titles 86 

Format: Align Center 89 

The Copy Right Command 91 

Formulas (Review) 98 

Naming Cells 99 

Building a Formula Using Names 103 

The Goto Name Command 107 

Calculating Functions: SUM 110 

Number Signs (#) 113 

Error Values 114 

Relative References and Absolute References 116 

Copying a Formula: The Copy From 
Command 121 

Summary 123 



83 



Naming Cells and Copying 



In the last session, you entered cost figures into the worksheet. 
You then built a formula for Total Costs using the cell pointer. 

In this session you will practice building more formulas. You will 
also learn how to copy cells and how to name them. 



The Transfer Load Command (Review) 

Load Multiplan. Now load your file. To review: 

Press T( Transfer). 

Press L or RETURN (to select Load). 

Type SPENCER. 

Press RETURN. 
Your screen should show: 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 

1 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost 

6 Material $4000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 

9 

10 Total Costs $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R9C2 " " 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



7\ 



85 



Multiplan 

Titles 



You need to be able to tell which month is which, so you will want 
to put the names of the months across the top of the worksheet. 
Move the cell pointer to row 1, column 2. 



ill 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

1 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost 

6 Material $4000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 

9 

10 Total Costs $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



You want to enter the months starting with January in row 1, 
column 2, so press A (for the Alpha command): 



ALPHA: 

Enter text (no double quotes) 

R1C2 99% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



86 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Type January. 



ALPHA: January 

Enter text (no double quotes) 
R1C2 



99% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press the RIGHT direction key to move the cell pointer to the 
next cell, row 1, column 3. Remember that moving the cell 
pointer automatically enters the word and places you in the 
ALPHA/VALUE : command each time you press a direction key 
to enter data; there is no need to press RETURN or Alpha each 
time. 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 



7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
ALPHA/VALUE: 

Enter text or value 
R1C3 



LJanuary If 



$20000.00 



Material $4000.00 
Labor $7000.00 
Overhead $4000.00 



r\ 



Total Costs $15000.00 



99% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



87 



Multiplan 



Follow the same procedure until you have listed all twelve months. 
You will automatically scroll the screen as you move the cell 
pointer. Press RETURN after the last month to enter the final 
title and to return to the main command menu. 



#18 9 10 11 12 13 14 

1 July August September October November December 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C13 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Naming Cells and Copying 
Move the pointer back to January (row 1, column 2). 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

1 January February March April May June 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 
4 

5 Cost 

6 Material $4000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 

9 

10 Total Costs $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C2 "January" 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Format: Align Center 



The names of the months, because they are text, are aligned left 
in the Multiplan "General" format (the format in which your 
worksheet began). The worksheet would look nicer and be easier 
to follow if the names of the months were centered over the 
columns. Use the Format Cells command with the "Center" 
alignment to accomplish this. 



89 



Multiplan 



Press F. 



FORMAT: Cells Default Options Width 

Select option or type command letter 

R1C2 "January" 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press C or RETURN (for Cells). 



FORMAT cells: R1C2 alignment: (Def)Ctr Gen Left Right - 

format code:(Def)Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R1C2 "January" 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



You want to format all twelve months, so you could follow the 
same procedure you used earlier to format a range of cells (the 
subheadings for Cost). But it is much faster and more efficient to 
format the whole row at once. 

Refer to your Quick Reference Guide or the Help Keyboard 
command for the CHARACTER RIGHT key. Press the CHARACTER 
RIGHT key to move the edit cursor to the end of the proposed 
response in the first field (R1C2). 

Earlier, instead of pressing the RIGHT direction key a number of 
times to give the range, we typed colon and another cell reference. 
This time we want to format a whole row. You could type the 
column numbers yourself ( 1 :63), but there's a more efficient way. 
Simply delete the C2 from the cell reference, using BACKSPACE. 



FORMAT cells: R1 Wf_ j_j alignment: (Def)Ctr Gen Left Right - 

format code:(Def)Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R1C2 "January" 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



90 



Naming Cells and Copying 



This leaves the response as Rl, which tells Multiplan to format 
the whole row. (Similarly, Cl would mean format all of column 

1.) 

Press TAB to move to the second field. Type Cto choose "Center." 

Press RETURN now because the proposed response in the "format 
code" field is correct and the "# of decimals" field does not apply. 

The names of the months are now aligned in the center over the 
columns of numbers and are easier to read. 



The Copy Right Command 



The figures you entered for Spencer Ceramics were for only one 
month. You will also want to show the rest of the year. Start by 
copying the figures you have for January into the remaining 
months of the year (the next 11 columns). You can later change 
some figures for costs or sales to see the effects of the changes on 
Spencer Ceramics' profits. 

To copy the number for Sales ($20000.00) into the next eleven 
cells, move the cell pointer to $20000.00 (row 3, column 2). Press 
C (for Copy). Your command line shows: 



COPY: Right Down From 

Select option or type command letter 

R3C2 20000 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



91 



Multiplan 



Choose the Right subcommand to copy from one cell (for January) 
into the cells to its right. Press R. The command line shows: 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: starting at: R3C2 

Enter a number 

R3C2 20000 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Where the edit cursor is located, type 11, for the number of times 
you want the formula in R3C2 copied. 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: 11 starting at: R3C2 

Enter a number 

R3C2 20000 95% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Multiplan has proposed the cell you want to copy (the location of 
the cell pointer) as the starting point. You have already specified 
how many copies of that cell you want. 



92 



Naming Cells and Copying 
Press RETURN. 



#11 2 3 4 5 6 7 

1 January February March April May June 
2 

3 Sales $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 
4 

5 Cost 

6 Material $4000.00 

7 Labor $7000.00 

8 Overhead $4000.00 

10 Total Costs $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C2 20000 94% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The screen is too small to display the whole year at one time, but 
you can see the rest of the year by using the direction keys to 
scroll the sheet beneath the pointer. Scroll until both columns 13 
and 14 are visible. The sales figures stop at column 13 (the last of 
the twelve months of the year). 



93 



Multiplan 



#18 9 10 11 12 13 

1 July August September October November December 

2 

3 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 
4 
5 



9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 94% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Now, fill in the cost figures, again using the Copy command. 
Instead of copying one row at a time ( as you did when you copied 
the $20000.00 for Sales), use the Copy Right command to copy a 
group of cells. 



94 



Naming Cells and Copying 



First, move the cell pointer to the upper left corner of the area 
you want to copy. You want to copy the information from rows 6 
through 10 in column 2, to the same rows in columns 3 through 
13 to fill in the rest of the months. Move the cell pointer to row 6 
in column 2. 



#1 

1 

2 

3 Sales 
4 

5 Cost 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


1 2 

January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 

May 


June 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


Material $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 












Total Costs $15000.00 





11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R6C2 4000 94% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press C(for Copy). 



COPY: Rif#rt Down From 

Select option or type command letter 

R6C2 4000 94% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



95 



Multiplan 



Press R (for Right). 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: 11 starting at: R6C2 



Enter a number 
R6C2 4000 



94% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



same as 
last time 
command 
was used 



Notice that the "number of cells" field shows 11, the same 
number you typed the last time you used the Copy Right com- 
mand. Multiplan will always propose the number you used for 
the last Copy Right command. The number you want is the 
number 11 (this copying is just like the one for Sales). 

Press TAB to move to the "starting at" field. 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: jvj] starting at: R6C2 



Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R6C2 4000 



94% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



If you were copying only one row, the proposed response would 
be right. But you want to copy 5 rows of column 2 to the right, so 
you need to enter a range. 



96 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Press : (colon). 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: 11 starting at: R6C2: 



Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R6C2 4000 



94% Free 




Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press the DOWN direction key until the cell pointer is on $15000.00 
(next to Total Costs). 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: 11 starting at: R6C2:R10C21 



Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R10C2 R[-4]C+R[-3]C+R[-2]C 



94% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



use 

direction 
key for 
end cell 



97 



Multiplan 



Notice how easily the range has been built. 

Press RETURN and watch the values appear across the screen. 
The values for Total Costs appear last because they involve 
copying a formula; Multiplan has to calculate the value after it 
finishes copying the formulas. You should now see: 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


1 2 

January 


3 
February 


4 

March 


5 
April 


6 
May 


June 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


Material S4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 


| $4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


Total Costs $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross 

16 

17 


Profits 












18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R6C2 4000 90% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Formulas (Review) 



A formula will do calculations for you, plus it allows you to 
change the numbers and have Multiplan recalculate the result. 
So you want to build formulas wherever you can. 



98 



Naming Cells and Copying 



In Chapter 3, you built a formula to calculate Total Costs. Now, 
you want to build a formula to calculate Gross Profits. Say to 
yourself, "Gross Profits is Sales minus Total Costs." A formula 
that uses these names is easily recognizable and as easy to build 
as the formulas you have built already. Before you can build such 
a formula, you must define the titles as names for some cells. 



Naming Cells 



Multiplan has a way to name cells or groups of cells, so that you 
can refer to them easily. You can, for example, name a whole row, 
such as row 3; you can name it Sales, meaning the whole line of 
numbers showing sales. If you could see your whole screen at 
once, you could imagine the row named Sales. It would look like 
this: 



#1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

1 Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 
2 

3 Sales Sales 

; 4 



"Sales" 

(Row 3 col. 2:13) 



9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C2 90% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



99 



Multiplan 



Note When you name a cell or group of cells , make the name 

one long word; do not use spaces or hyphens. (For 
more information, see the discussion of the Name 
command in Chapter 9. ) 

To build a formula for Gross Profits, you must first name the 
groups of cells that contain sales and total cost figures. Then 
these names can be used to build your formula. 

Start by naming row 3 Sales. 

Move the cell pointer to R3C1 (row 3, column 1). 

Press JV (for Name). 



NAME: define name: Sales to refer to: R3C1 

90% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Enter name 

R3C1 "Sales 



text in active 
cell used for 
proposed response 



In the first field, Multiplan proposes Sales as the name to be 
defined. This is helpful for quickly turning titles on a worksheet 
into names. Titles are text that you place in a cell. Names are 
references to areas on the worksheet. A name may be the same as 
a title, as it is here. But, the area the name refers to may be 
different from the area that contains the title, again as it is here. 



100 



Naming Cells and Copying 
Press TAB to move to the next field. 



NAME: define name:[Sales! to refer to: R3C1 



Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R3C1 "Sales" 



90% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



message 
changes 



Notice that when you tabbed to the "to refer to" field, the 
message changed to "Enter reference to cell or group of cells." 
Multiplan is asking you to specify which cells this name refers to. 

You want Sales to refer to the cells in row 3, columns 2 through 
13. Press the RIGHT direction key once; the response in the "to 
refer to" field is now R3C2. Press : (colon), then the RIGHT 
direction key to move the cell pointer to column 13 (December). 
You should see: 



NAME: define name: Sales to refer to: R3C2:R3C13 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R3C13 20000 90% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press RETURN. 

You could have typed 13 after the colon instead of using the cell 
pointer. This method is faster if you know which cells compose 
the group you are naming. 

Now Name the group of cells that defines Total Costs. 



101 



Multiplan 



Move the cell pointer to Total Costs (R10C1). 
Press N (for Name). 

NAME: define name: Total Costs to refer to: R10C2:13. 

Enter name 

R10C1 "Total Costs" 90% Free \ Multiplan: SPENCER 




Notice Total_Costs in the "define name" field and R10C2:13 in 
the "to refer to" field (the C2:13 part is the same as for Salesl). 
You need only press RETURN to define Total_Costs. 

Note Multiplan changes any spaces in titles to underlines 

and deletes any illegal characters when titles are 
defined as names. The titles themselves are unaffected. 

The same procedure would work for Material, Labor, and 
Overhead, if you wanted to define these or any other names, too 
(it's not necessary for the Spencer Ceramics example): 

1. Move the cell pointer to the title. 

2. Press N (for Name). 

3. Press RETURN. 

By proposing responses, Multiplan makes it easy to define quickly 
names for groups of cells that have similar shapes. In other 
cases, the proposed reponses may not be suitable. You should 
always check the definition proposed for a name before you press 
RETURN. 

The names do not appear on the screen. Nevertheless, the name 
can be used later in a formula or any other way that cell references 
can be used. It can also be used to refer to data on this worksheet 
from other worksheets. You'll learn more about this later. 



102 



Naming Cells and Copying 



If you forget which cells a name refers to, you can use the Name 
command to find out. Press N, then use the RIGHT direction key 
to "step forward through" the list of names. Each time you press 
the RIGHT direction key, another name appears, and the group of 
cells it refers to appears in the second field. If you forget which 
name you used, follow the same procedure until the name you are 
searching for appears. (Press CANCEL to return to the regular 
command line. ) 



Building a Formula Using Names 



Move the cell pointer to row 15, column 2, next to Gross Profits. 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 

o 


1 


2 
January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 

May 


June 




$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


Material 

Labor 

Overhead 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 



1st step: 
position 
pointer 



V 



10 Total Costs $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits -< 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R15C2 89% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Again, say to yourself, "Gross Profits is Sales minus Total Costs" 
Gross Profits = Sales — Total Costs 



103 



Multiplan 



Now build the formula. 
Press =. 



2nd step: 
press = 



VALUE: i 



Enter a formula 
R15C2 



>% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Type Sales. 



A 



3rd step: 
type Sales 



VALUE: Sales I 



Enter a formula 
R15C2 



88% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press — (minus). 



/ 



4th step: 
press - 



VALUE: Sales - 



Enter a formula 
R15C2 



88% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



104 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Now type Totals Costs (names must be typed exactly as defined; 
be sure to include the underline character between Total and 
Costs). 



5th step: 

type Total__Costs 



7 



VALUE: Sales -TotaLCosts ! 

Enter a formula 
R15C2 



88% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



be sure to 
include 
underline 
character 



Press RETURN. 



ft 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 




1 


2 

January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 
May 


June 




$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


Material 

Labor 

Overhead 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 



10 Total Costs $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 Gross Profits $5000.00 -*■ 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R15C2 Sales -TotaLCosts 88% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



6th step: 
press RETURN 



formula Is 
complete 



105 



Multiplan 



Look at the cell for Gross Profits (row 15, column 2). When you 
pressed RETURN, Multiplan calculated your formula and placed 
the results in the cell. Gross Profits now shows $5000.00, 
and the status line displays the Gross Profits formula (Sales— 
Total_ Costs). 

Now copy this formula to the right 11 times (type C, R, 11, 
RETURN). 



#1 

i 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 


1 2 

January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 

April 


6 
May 


June 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


Material $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


10 
11 
12 


Total Costs $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits $5000.00 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy De 

Name Options Print 
Select option or type command le 
R1 5C2 Sales - TotaLCosts 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


lete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Suit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
tter 

87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Remember that Sales is defined as a 12 cell area (January through 
December). And so is Total_Costs. The $5000.00 is, of course, 
the correct result for each month. But why does a formula that 
subtracts all of Total _ Costs from all of Sales give the correct 
result each month? ( If you change either a sales figure or a cost 
figure for one month, the Gross Profits figure changes in that 
column only.) 



106 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Even though you specify part or all of a row, as you did here by 
using the names Sales and Total^Costs, Multiplan calculates in 
only one column at a time when it needs only one value for the 
result. Multiplan works the same way if you specify all or part of 
a column; it calculates in only one row at a time when it needs 
only one value for the result. This topic is discussed thoroughly 
in the "Formulas" section of Chapter 8. 



The Goto Name Command 

Named cells are easy to locate by using the Goto command. 
Press G (for Goto). 



GOTO: Name Row-col Window 

Select option or type command letter 

R15C2 "Total Costs" 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Choose Name by pressing N or RETURN. 



GOTO name: 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R15C2 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



107 



Multiplan 



Type Sales. 



GOTO name: Sales jjj 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R15C2 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Note Just as with the Name command, you can use the 

direction keys to "step through" the list of names. 
When the name you want appears, press RETURN. 

Press RETURN. Your screen now looks like this: 





first cell of 
















named area 














#1 1X2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1 \ January 

3 Sales $20000.00 

4 

5 Cost 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 












6 Material $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 Labor $7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 Overhead 

9 

10 Total Costs $ 
-1 4 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


15000.00 


15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


12 












13 












14 












15 Gross Profits 












16 












17 












18 












19 












20 












COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 










R3C2 20000 




87% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 



108 



Naming Cells and Copying 



The cell pointer always goes to the first cell in the named area; 
the leftmost cell if the area is a row, the uppermost cell if it's a 
column, the upper leftmost cell if it's a block of cells. 

Note When you name a cell, the name will stay the same no 

matter what is in the cell. For example, you named a 
group of cells Sales, and you can change the contents 
whenever you want. The cell will still be called Sales, 
and you can get to it by its name (that is, Goto Name, 
Sales. ) 

The only way you can remove a name is to define it as blank. For 
example, to remove the name Sales, press N, then the RIGHT 
direction key until Sales appears, then TAB. Now, simply press 
the DELETE key to erase the row and column numbers to which it 
refers: 



deleted cell 
reference 



V. 



NAME: define name: Sales to refer to: 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R3C2 20000 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



You should press the CANCEL key now because you don't want to 
remove Sales as a defined name. If you do remove the name 
Sales, you'll need to redefine Sales to refer to R3C2:13 before 
continuing. 



109 



Multiplan 

Calculating Functions: SUM 

It looks like Spencer Ceramics has made a lot of money. Wouldn't 
you like to see how much? Then, let's add another column heading 
in column 14, row 1, for the sums. Use the Goto command to 
move the cell pointer to R1C14. 

Press G (for Goto). 

Press R (for Row). 

Type 1, press TAB, type 14. 

Press RETURN. 
Enter the title Sum in column 14. 

Press A (for Alpha). 

Type Sum. 

Press RETURN. 
Now your screen should show: 



#1 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

1 December Sum 
2 

3 $20000.00 
4 
5 

6 $4000.00 

7 $7000.00 

8 $4000.00 



10 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C14 "Sum" 90% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



110 



Naming Cells and Copying 



The word Sum is centered over column 14 because you used the 
Format Cells command earlier to "center" the whole row. 

To calculate the sales total for Spencer Ceramics for the twelve 
months, use the Multiplan function SUM. Begin by moving the 
cell pointer to the cell where the result will appear, row 3, column 
14. 



#1 8 
1 July 
2 

3 $20000.00 
4 


9 
August 


10 11 
September October 


12 13 14 
November December Sum 


^ 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 $20000.00 


$20000.00 $20000.00 




5 

6 $4000.00 

7 $7000.00 

8 $4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 $4000.00 
$7000.00 $7000.00 
$4000.00 $4000.00 


$4000.00 $4000.00 
$7000.00 $7000.00 
$4000.00 $4000.00 




10 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 $15000.00 


$15000.00 $15000.00 


16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



Press = . The command line will show: 



VALUE: 



Enter a formula 
R3C14 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



111 



Multiplan 



Type SUM(Sales). 

Note When using any of the Multiplan functions, type the 

function name followed immediately by an opening 
parenthesis, (. Do not leave any space between the 
function name and the opening parenthesis. 

Press RETURN. You will see: 



9 10 11 12 13 

August September October November December 



14 
Sum 



#1 8 

1 July 
2 

3 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 ########## 
4 
5 

6 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

7 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 

8 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

9 

10 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



112 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Number Signs (#) 



When numbers are too large to be shown in the current formatted 
column width, they are displayed as number signs (#) until 
the column is widened enough to accommodate the number. 

Column 14 has not been widened so it is not wide enough to 
accommodate the sum-of-sales figure in the dollar format 
(remember: your whole sheet is formatted in dollars ) because the 
dollar format adds a dollar sign, a decimal point, and two places 
after the decimal point. Look at the status line. It shows that cell 
R3C14 contains SUM( Sales). You would have to widen the column 
to display the dollar value as numbers instead of as number 
signs. Use the Format Width command to widen column 14. 
Press F. Press W. Type 15, as you did when you widened column 
1. Press RETURN. You'll see: 



#1 

........... 

2 
3 

4 


8 

July 


9 
August 


10 
September 


11 
October 


12 
November 


13 
December 


14 
Sum 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 J 


$240000.00 


5 
6 
7 
8 
a 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 





10 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



113 



Multiplan 

Error Values 



If you enter a formula that Multiplan cannot calculate to a 
number or text, Multiplan uses one of the special error values as 
the result. Error values start with a number sign ( # ). For example, 
look at the value in cell R3C14, which is the sum of sales. (If the 
cell pointer is not there already, move it to R3C14. ) The formula 
is SUM( Sales ). Let's "undefine" Sales. Press N. Press the RIGHT 
direction key until Sales appears in the "define name" field. Press 
TAB. Now press the DELETE key. The reference for Sales dis- 
appears. Press RETURN and the name Sales no longer exists. 

Notice at the same time what happens in cell R3C14. The value 
changes from $240000.00 to #NAME?. 



#1 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


2 
3 

4 

5 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 


December 


Sum 


$20000.00 
$4000.00 


$20000.00 
$4000.00 


$20000.00 
$4000.00 


$20000.00 
$4000.00 


$20000.00 
$4000.00 


$20000.00 f 
$4000.00 


#NAME? 

t 


6 


error 


7 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


value: 


8 
9 

10 
11 
12 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


name not 
defined 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 




13 
















14 
















15 
















16 
















17 
















18 
















19 
















20 

















COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



This means that Multiplan found a name you haven't defined 
yet. 



114 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Now, redefine Sales to refer to R3C2:13. Press N; the "define 
name" field is blank, but the "to refer to" field shows R3C2-.13! 



V 



NAME: define name 
Enter name 



R3C14 



SUM(Sales) 



to refer to: R3C2:13 



86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Type Sales, then press RETURN. The value $240000.00 reappears 
in cell R3C14. 



#1 

2 

3 
4 


8 
July 


9 
August 


10 
September 


11 
October 


12 
November 


13 
December 


14 
Sum 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 | 


$240000.00 


5 
6 
7 
8 

Q 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 





10 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Remember, when you defined Totals Costs, the "to refer to" field 
had a proposed response that fit. Because Sales will refer to a 
group of cells with the same shape as the group of cells of the last 
name defined ( Total_ Costs ), the proposed response is correct for 
redefining Sales, as long as the cell pointer is in the correct 
row before starting the Name command. 



115 



Multiplan 



The other error values you might see as you build a worksheet 
are: #DIV/0!, #N/A, #NULL!, #NUM!, #REF!, #VALUE!. All 
of the error values are described fully under "Error Values" in the 
"Formulas" section of Chapter 8. 



Relative References and Absolute References 



So far we've been using three different ways to refer to cells. 
Sometimes, we referred to a cell as R3C14 or a group of cells as 
R3C2:13. Sometimes, we referred to a group of cells by name, as 
when we built the formula SUM (Sales) or Sales— Total _ Costs. 
Sometimes, we referred to a cell by R[— 4]C, as when we built the 
formula for Total Costs. 

When you refer to cells by R3C14, R3C2:13, or similar references 
to specific row numbers and specific column numbers, you are 
using absolute references. When you refer to a cell by R[— 4]C 
and similar references to the current row plus or minus a number 
of rows, you are using relative references (which can also be used 
for columns). 

The major difference between absolute and relative references 
appears when copying formulas. When you copied the formula 
for Total Costs across all 12 months, the correct value appeared 
in each column. You wouldn't see any difference between a formula 
with absolute references and one with relative references in this 
case because the values for Material, Labor, and Overhead are 
the same in each column. But, if one or more values were changed 
in one column, the value of Total Costs in that one column would 
differ. 

On the other hand, if the formula contained absolute references, 
all copies of Total Costs would depend on the values in column 2 
rather than on the values in each column. 

If you had specified the exact row and column number for Ma- 
terial, Labor, and Overhead by making an absolute reference 
to their position, such as R6C2 + R7C2 + R8C2, you would have 
had to change each of the references for the Total Costs formula 
in each column for the formula to remain correct. 



116 



Naming Cells and Copying 



col2 



col3 



col4 



row3 
row4 
row5 
row6 



Absolute Formula in row6: R3C2+ R4C2+ R5C2 

Figure 4.1. Copied Absolute Formulas Refer to the Same Cells 

If the 2 in col2 becomes a 3, then all 6's in row6 become 7's; if any value 
in row3, row4, or row5 of col3 or col4 changes, there is no affect in row6. 



col2 



col3 



col4 



row3 1 




□I 




i 


row4 2 


► -«— 


H 


►-*— 


' n 


row5 3 

) 




sJ 




• J 


row6 6 — 




tn- 




I 6 I 



Relative Formula in row6: R[-3]C+ R[-2]C+ R[- 1]C 

Figure 4.2. Copied Relative Formulas Refer to Different Cells 

If one of the 2's in row4 becomes a 3, then the value in row6 in that one 
column becomes a 7. 



117 



Multiplan 



For reasons of flexibility, you used a formula with relative 
references, built by using the cell pointer, to calculate Total 
Costs. Similarly, using a formula with relative references to 
calculate the sum of Sales allows you to copy a flexible formula 
for calculating the sums of Total Costs and Gross Profits. 

First, you need to edit the formula in row 3, column 14 (R3C14). 
Right now it contains the formula SUM( Sales). Because names 
are defined by absolute references, Sales is handled the same as 
an absolute reference. You need to change Sales to relative 
references. 

Move the cell pointer to R3C14. 

Press E (for Edit). The command line now looks like: 



contents of 
active cell 
placed on 
command 
line 



EDIT: SUM(Salesl 



Enter a formula 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



The formula in the active cell is now displayed on the command 
line. 

Press BACKSPACE to erase Sales), but leave SUM(. 



EDIT: SUNK ^Kftfe 



Enter a formula 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



118 



Naming Cells and Copying 



Press the LEFT direction key until the cell pointer reaches 
R3C2. 



new entries 
added to 
previous contents 



EDIT:SUM(RC[-12l 

Enter a formula 
R3C2 20000 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Multiplan inserts a relative reference into your formula. Press : 
(colon). 



EDIT:SUM(RC[-12l: 

Enter a formula 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 



87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press the LEFT direction key once (to R3C13) 



range has 
been built 



EDIT: SUM(RC[- 12l:RC[- 1]| 

Enter a formula 
R3C13 20000 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



119 



Multiplan 



Press ) (right parenthesis) 



remember 

closing 

parenthesis 



EDIT: SUM(RC[- 12]:RC[- 1])| 

Enter a formula 
R3C14 SUM(Sales) 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press RETURN. Your screen now looks like: 



#1 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


""""1 

2 

3 
4 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 


December 


Sum 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 I 


$240000.00 


5 
6 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




7 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 




8 
9 

10 
11 
12 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


















13 
















14 
















15 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 




16 
















17 
















18 
















19 
















20 

















COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(RC[-12]:RC[-1]) 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Now, you can easily use this same formula to calculate the sums 
for Total Costs and Gross Profits by copying the formula into 
cells R10C14 and R15C14 using the Copy From command. 



120 



Naming Cells and Copying 

Copying a Formula: The Copy From Command 

Press C (for Copy), then F (for From). 



COPY FROM cells: R3C14 to cells: R3C14 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R3C14 SUM(RC[-12l:RC[-1l) 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Multiplan proposes that you copy from the active cell, which is 
what you want to do. Press TAB. The proposed response in the 
"to cells" field is not correct. Press the DOWN direction key until 
the cell pointer reaches row 10. 



COPY FROM cells: R3C14 to cells: R10C14 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R10C14 87% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



This is one of the cells to receive a copy of the formula. The other 
is in row 15. Because the cells are not next to each other, you 
can't use a range as you've done before with the colon. You need, 
instead, to make a list of cells. To make a list, use the comma. 

Press , (comma). 



use comma 
to make a 
list of cells 



COPY FROM cells: R3C14 to cells: R10C14, 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

R3C14 SUM(RC[-12l:RC[-1]) 87% Free Multiptan: SPENCER 



121 



Multiplan 



Now press the DOWN direction key until the cell pointer reaches 
row 15. 



COPY FROM cells: R3C14 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R15C14 



to cells: R10C14,R15C141 



87% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press RETURN, and watch the values appear in rows 10 and 15 of 
column 14: 



#1 



8 9 10 11 12 13 

July August September October November December 



14 
Sum 



$240000.00 



1 

2 

3 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 

4 

5 

6 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

7 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 

8 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 
g 

10 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND 



|Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(RC[-12]:RC[-11) 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



copied formula 
gives correct sums 



$5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 



$180000.00 

< 



$60000.00 



It's time to take a break. To make it easier when you return, move 
the cell pointer back to the beginning of the worksheet. Multiplan 
always loads a worksheet exactly as it was when you saved it. 
Use Goto Row command to move the cell pointer to row 3, 
column 2. 



122 



Naming Cells and Copying 

In the next session, you will see how Spencer Ceramics' profits 
change as costs and sales change. 

Save your work with the Transfer Save command. To review: 

Press T( Transfer). 

Press 5 (Save). 

Press RETURN. 
You will see the question: 

Overwrite existing file? 

Type Y (to update, or overwrite, the old file with the 
information you have added). 

Your work has now been saved and will be available for you 
when you return. Press Q (for Quit), and Y {to confirm). 



Summary 



In this session you learned: 

How to load your worksheet with the Transfer Load com- 
mand (review). 

How to place titles on your worksheet. 

How to center titles in columns (Format Cells command). 

How to copy one cell to the right. 

How to copy a group of cells to the right. 

How to build formulas (review). 

How to name cells and groups of cells. 



123 



Multiplan 



How to build a formula using names. 

How to go to the beginning of a named area using the Goto 
Name command. 

How to calculate the sum of a named area. 

How Multiplan indicates that a number is too large to be 
displayed within the present width of a column by displaying 
number signs (#). 

How Multiplan displays error values for formulas that it 
cannot calculate. 

How relative references and absolute references differ. 

How to copy a formula using the Copy Prom command. 



124 



Chapter 5 

Windows, Copying Formulas, 
and Options 



Fixing Titles: The Window Split Title 
Command 128 

Opening a Window: The Window Split 
Command 131 

Linking Windows: The Window Link 
Command 134 

Bordering Windows: The Window Border 
Command 136 

Building a Formula to Show Increasing 
Sales 138 

Copying a Formula to the Right: The Copy Right 
Command (Review) 142 

What If ... ? 144 

Protecting the Worksheet: The Lock Formulas 
Command 145 

The NEXT UNLOCKED CELL Key 146 

Unlocking Cells 148 

The Options Command 148 

Summary 152 



125 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



In the last session you reviewed the procedure for building 
formulas, and you learned how to copy cells into other cells on 
the worksheet. You also learned how to name cells, how to use the 
Goto command to move the pointer to the named area, and how 
to do a calculation using a name and a function. 

In this session you will learn how to view several portions of the 
worksheet at once by "opening windows," as well as how to 
manipulate these windows quickly and easily. 

Load the Multiplan disk. Then Transfer Load SPENCER. The 
screen should look just as it did when you left it last time: 



#1 

1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


1 2 

January 


3 

February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 
May 


June 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


Material $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


Total Costs $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits $5000.00 

16 

17 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C2 20000 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



127 



Multiplan 

Fixing Titles: The Window Split Title Command 



It is possible to keep the headings for Sales, Cost, etc., in view 
while you look at the last half of the year. It can be difficult to tell 
what numbers you are looking at when you get past April if you 
can't see the headings. 

You can "fix" the titles in place, so that they will remain visible as 
you scroll the columns by using the Window Split command. 

Press W (for Window). 



WINDOW: Split Border Close Link 

Select option or type command letter 

R3C2 20000 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



There are several subcommands to choose from. You want to 
split off the titles from the figures, so choose Split by pressing S 
or RETURN. 



WINDOW SPLIT: Horizontal Vertical Titles 

Select option or type command letter 

R3C2 20000 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Of the subcommands you see, pick Titles because you want to fix 
the titles (or headings) in place down column 1. 



128 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



Press T. 



number depends 
on location of 
cell pointer 



WINDOW SPLIT TITLES: # of rows: Z # of columns: 1 

Enter a number 

R3C2 20000 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



In the first field, type a zero ( ) because you only want to split the 
the window vertically, by columns. 

Note You cannot ask Multiplan to split more columns or 

rows than you can see on the screen. If you do, the 
"Window will not fit" message will appear. 



WINDOW SPLIT TITLES: # of rows: # of columns: 1 

Enter a number 

R3C2 20000 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



In the second field {"# of columns"), Multiplan is asking how 
many columns you would like to split. You want one column for 
the titles. As "1" is the proposed response, merely press RETURN. 



129 



Multiplan 







active 
















window #1 




window #2 














1 




1 








rl 


1 #2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


>| 


1 
2 
3 Sal 




January 


February 


March 


April 


May 




es 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 




4 

5 Cost 














6 


Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




7 


Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 




8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


Overhead 
Total Costs 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 
14 
15 Gross Profits 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 




16 
















17 
















18 
















19 
















20 
















COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 






Name Options 


> Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 






Select option or type command letter 












^ R3C2 


20000 




86% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



Now, when you scroll to December, you will still be able to see the 
headings for Sales, Cost, and Gross Profits. Try pressing the 
RIGHT direction key until July comes into view. The titles are 
still fixed at the left of the screen. Now press the LEFT direction 
key to get back to January. 



130 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 

Opening a Window: The Window Split Command 



You have actually opened a second window by splitting the one 
you were working on. Save your work at this stage by using the 
Transfer Save command (with Y, for Yes, to overwrite the existing 
file). 

Note It is important that you save the worksheet, as you 

will be changing the worksheet in ways you probably 
won't want to save. After you practice opening and 
closing windows, you will reload the SPENCER work- 
sheet, which will replace the active worksheet with the 
SPENCER worksheet as it stands now. 

Now experiment with opening and closing windows by using the 
Window Split command. 

Position the cell pointer on the row you want (for horizontal 
splits) or on the column you want (for vertical splits) before you 
start the Window command. For now, move the cell pointer to 
R11C2. 

Now press W. 



WINDOW: Split Border Close Link 

Select option or type command letter 

R11C2 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Now press S. 



WINDOW SPLIT: Horizontal Vertical Titles 

Select option or type command letter 

R11C2 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



131 



Multiplan 



The Horizontal choice allows you to split a window across the 
screen at the row number you specify. The Vertical choice will let 
you split a window up and down at the column you choose. 

Press H (for Horizontal). 



WINDOW SPLIT HORIZONTAL at row: 11 linked: Yes(No) 

Enter a number 

R11C2 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The first field ("at row") asks at what row you want to split the 
window. Multiplan proposes row 11, which is what we'll do for 
now. ( Getting a correct proposed response is the reason you want 
to position the cell pointer before starting a command. ) 

The second field shows linking status: "linked: Yes(No)" When 
windows are linked, they scroll together. That means that as you 
move the cell pointer at the edge of one of the linked windows, the 
contents of both windows move across the screen at the same 
time. 



132 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



For now, press RETURN. The screen should look like: 



#1 


1 #2 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


^ 


1 

2 

3 Sales 






January 
$20000.00 


February 
$20000.00 


March 
$20000.00 


April 
$20000.00 


May 
$20000.00 






new 


4 




window 














number 












5 Cost 


















6 


Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




7 


Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 




8 Overhead 
9 
10 Total Costs ' 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




' $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


11 


#: 


i 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




12 




1 
2 






4 










13 






mother set of 




14 




3 






column numbers 








1K f^rrtCC Prrifitc 


4 

5 $5000.00 
















16 




$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 




17 




6 












18 




7 












19 




8 












20 




9 












COMMAND 


Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock 
Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 


Move 




Select optio 


n or type command letter 












R11C2 






86% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



Notice the column numbers at the top of window #3. Scroll 
across to column 14, then scroll back to column 2. Window #2 is 
unaffected. When windows are not linked, you can scroll them 
separately to view different parts of the worksheet simultane- 
ously. If you had specified "Yes" when splitting, windows #2 and 
#3 would scroll together. 



133 



Multiplan 



Linking Windows: The Window Link Command 



Once windows are split, you can change their link status with the 
Window Link command. Press V^(for Window), then press L (for 
Link). 



WINDOW LINK window number: 3 with window number: 2 linked: Yes(No) 



Enter a number 
R11C2 


- 


i 


86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 


















active 
window 




window from which 
active window was split 






propo 


sed 











Multiplan proposes linking window #3 with window #2, which is 
what you want. Press TAB twice. 



Select option 
R11C2 



86% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press Y or SPACE to select "Yes." 



WINDOW LINK window number: 3 with window number: 2 linked: Yes No 

86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Select option 
R11C2 



134 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



Press RETURN and watch the column numbers for window #3. 



#1 


1 


#2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 






January 


February 


March 


April 


May 






$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 
















6 


Material 




$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor 




$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 
9 

10 


Overhead 
Total Costs 




$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


11 




»3 
11 








4 








12 




column numbers 






13 




12 






disappear from 






14 


Profits 


13 
14 






window #3 








15 Gross 














16 




15 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


17 




16 












18 




17 












19 




18 












20 




19 

















COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete 
Name Options Print Quit 
Select option or type command letter 
R11C2 



Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 



i% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



They've disappeared! This is an outward sign that windows are 
linked. The column numbers for window #2 now stand for both 
windows #2 and #3. 

Scroll to column 14. The information in both windows scrolls. 
Scroll back to column 1 ; the information again moves together 
across the screen. 



135 



Multiplan 



Bordering Windows: The Window Border Command 



If a window is bordered, it has a line drawn around it that sets it 
off from the surrounding worksheet. The sheet you now have is 
not bordered. 

Try the Window Border command to see what a bordered window 
looks like. Press W, then B. 



WINDOW change border in window number:j 

Enter a number 
R11C2 



»% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



active 
window 
number 
proposed 



Multiplan proposes the active window, but you could give any 
open window number. 

Simply press RETURN to place a border around window #3. 



136 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



The display should look like: 



#1 


1 


#2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 






January 


February 


March 


April 


May 






$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 
















6 


Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 
9 
10 


Overhead 
Total Costs 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


11 
















12 


tei 


1 1 


- I r 


i r^— 


— "I I 


" 'II 


13 




11 












14 




12 












15 Gross Profits 


13 












16 




14 












17 




15 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


18 




16 












19 




17 












20 






1 1 


I I , 


II 


I I 


II 



COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete 
"Name Options Print Quit 
Select option or type command letter 
R11C2 



EditlFormat Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 



86% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



window 
border 



If you split a bordered window, both resulting windows have 
borders. 

Try opening (press W, then S) and closing (press W, then C) 
windows until you become familiar with the command. Use the 
NEXT WINDOW key to move the pointer from window to window 
until it is in the window you wish to split. 

When you are finished, reload your worksheet (Transfer Load 
SPENCER). Any changes you have made since you last saved 
the SPENCER worksheet will be erased. 



137 



Multiplan 



Building a Formula to Show Increasing Sales 



Your information on Spencer Ceramics indicates that sales have 
been increasing by about 1% a month. To see the effect of a 1% 
monthly increase in sales, first move the pointer to row 3, column 
3, under February, which is the first month that will show an 
increase. 



step 1: 

place pointer 
on 1st month 
of increase 



#1 


1 #2 


2 


3 


h 


5 


6 


1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 




January 


February) 


' March 


April 


May 




$20000.00 


$20000.00 


( $20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 














6 


Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 
g 


Overhead 
fotal Costs 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


10 1 
11 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


12 

13 














14 














15 Gross Profits 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


16 














17 














18 














19 














20 














COMMAND 


' llI(ilt B ' ank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options 


Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 










R3C3 


20000 




86% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 



138 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



Press =. Your command line shows: 



step 2: 



7 



VALUE: 



Enter a formula 
R3C3 20000 



86% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Using January sales as a base for the remaining months, type in 
a formula that will calculate each month's sales as a 1% increase 
over the preceding month's sales. Move the cell pointer back to 
row 3, column 2, under January. 







step 3: 














move pointer 














to "base" month 




















#1 


1 #2 


2 


3 4 


5 


6 


^ 


1 

2 




January 


Februa 


ry March 
DO - ) $20000.00 


April 
$20000.00 


May 
$20000.00 




3 Sales 

4 


E20000.0Of$200O0. 


5 Cost 












6 


Material 


$4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




7 


Labor 


$7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 




8 Overhead 
9 
10 Total Costs S 


$4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 




615000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


11 












12 












13 












14 












15 Gross Profits 


$5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 




16 












17 












18 












19 












20 












VALUE: RC[ 


-1] 










Enter a formula 










R3C2 


20000 


86% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



139 



Multiplan 



To show February's sales as a 1% increase over January's, you 
need to multiply January's sales by 101% (that is, February sales 
are 101% of January's). 

Press * (the asterisk is the sign for multiplication). 



cell pointer 
moves back 



1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 



2 

January 



3 
February 



4 
March 



5 
April 



6 

May 



Material 

Labor 

Overhead 



Total Costs 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Gross Profits 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
VALUE: RC[-1]*h 

Enter a formula 
R3C3 20000 



{$20^.ro]j2000QXI()J$20000.00 $20000.00 $20000.00 



$4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

$7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 

$4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

$15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 



$5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 $5000.00 



step 4: 
type ' 
("times") 



i% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Now type 101% (use the number 1, not the lowercase letter I). 



step 5: 
type 101% 
(1% increase) 



VALUE: RC[-1]*101% 

Enter a formula 
R3C3 20000 



»% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



140 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



Press RETURN. You should see the new cell value for February 
showing a 1% increase over the previous month, January. 











new 


value 














shows 1% 














Increase 








#1 1 #2 


2 


3 I 


I . 


5 




1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 


January 


February] 


March 


April 


May 


$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 


$20000.00 












6 Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 Overhead 

9 

10 Total Costs 
11 
12 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 












13 












14 












15 Gross Profits 


$5000.00 


$5200.00 


$5000.00 


$5000.00 


. $5000.00 


16 












17 












18 












19 












20 












COMMAND:|jjj|j Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 


Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 










P.3C3 RC[-1]*101% 


86% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 




status line 














shows formula 














which replaces 














number for 














active cell 

















141 



Multiplan 

Copying a Formula to the Right: 
The Copy Right Command (Review) 



Because January acts as the "base" month for the 1% increase, 
the cell for January Sales does not contain a formula. You will 
therefore be copying the formula for February Sales into the 
remaining 10 months of the year. To copy this formula to the 
right, be sure the cell pointer is on R3C3 (under February), and 
press C. 



COPY: Right Down From 

Select option or type command letter 
R3C3 RC[-1]*101% 



86% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press R or RETURN. 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: starting at: R3C3 

86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Enter a number 

R3C3 RC[-1]*101% 



In the first field ("number of cells"), type 10. 



COPY RIGHT number of cells: 10 starting at: R3C3 

Enter a number 

R3C3 RC[-1]*101% 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



142 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



In the second field ("starting at"), you see that R3C3 (the active 
cell) is the proposed response. That is where you want to start 
because the other 10 cells are to be copies of this cell. 

As you press RETURN, watch the results. 



#1 
1 


1 #2 


2 
January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 

May 


3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 




$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 


Material 

Labor 

Overhead 

Total Costs 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


10 
11 
12 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 


$5000.00 


$5200.00 


$5402.00 


$5606.02 


$5812.08 


18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 

R3C3 RC[-1]*101% 86% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 
^ ■ - ■— 



Move the cell pointer to row 3, column 14, to see the sales figures 
resulting from a 1% monthly increase. The formula was copied to 
the remainder of the year, and the cells that depended on sales 
figures (Gross Profits and sum of Sales, for example) have been 
updated to include the new information. 



143 



Multiplan 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


September 


11 
October 


12 
November 


13 
December 


14 
Sum 


$21657.13 


$21873.71 


$22092.44 


$22313.37 


$253650.06 


Cost 
Material $4000.00 
Labor $7000.00 
Overhead $4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 




rotal Costs $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$180000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits $6657.13 

16 

17 


$6873.71 


$7092.44 


$7313.37 


$73650.06 


18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(RQ-12]:RC[-1]) 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



> 



Before you go on, save your work (Transfer Save, and Y to 
overwrite). 



What If ... ? 



The SPENCER worksheet is based on the assumption that the 
company will have $20,000,00 in sales in the "base" month 
(January). The rest of the sales figures are calculated from a 
formula that assumes a sales increase of 1% per month. All the 
cost figures are the same for each month. 



144 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



What if the actual "base" figures (figures you typed in rather 
than figures calculated from formulas) are different from the 
estimates you typed in? You would want to change the "base" 
figures, but would want to protect your formulas (especially 
those for calculating Total Costs and Gross Profits) from al- 
teration. How do you protect your formulas from accidental 
alteration? And, how do you quickly find which cells contain the 
"base" figures? 

Multiplan has a Lock command to protect formulas and text and 
a NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key to move quickly from one base 
figure to the next. 



Protecting the Worksheet : 
The Lock Formulas Command 



Press L (for Lock), then F (for Formulas). The command line 
changes to: 



LOCK FORMULAS: 

Enter Y to confirm 

R3C14 SUM(Sales) 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The message line shows the message "Enter Yto confirm." Enter 
Y if you want to lock all cells with formulas or text. Press any 
other key to cancel the command. 

Press Y. The command menu returns. 



145 



Multiplan 



The NEXT UNLOCKED CELL Key 



To see the effect of the Lock Formulas command, press the HOME 
key to go to R1C1. Now press the NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key 
(refer to your Quick Reference Guide or the Help Keyboard 
command). Your screen should display: 



#1 


1 #2 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


1 

2 


' "1 January 
< 


February 


March 


April 


3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 


Sales $20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


Cost 








6 


Material Material $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor Labor $7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 
9 
10 

11 
12 


Overhead Overhead $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


Total Costs Total Costs $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 










13 










14 










15 Gross Profits Gross Profits $5000.00 


$5200.00 


$5402.00 


$5606.02 


16 










17 










18 










19 










20 










COMMAND 


: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 








R3C2 


20000 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The cell pointer moves to R3C2, which is the first cell from the 
beginning of the worksheet that contains typed in numbers 
rather than text or a formula. Notice that blank cells are also 
ignored. 



146 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



Type 18000, then press RETURN. Again, press the NEXT UN- 
LOCKED CELL key. 



#1 


1 m 


1 2 


3 


4 




1 




January 


February 


March 


April 


2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 




Sales [I18OOO.O0] 
Cost T 


$18180.00 


$18361.80 


$18545.42 


6 


Material 


Material $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor 


Labor $7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 Overhead 

9 

10 Total Costs 
11 
12 


Overhead $4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


Total Costs $15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 


Gross Profits $3000.00 


$3180.00 


$3361.80 


$3545.42 


18 
19 
20 












COMMAND 


: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert 


Lock Move 






Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type command letter 








R6C2 


4000 


84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The value in R3C2 (January Sales) changed, and Multiplan 
recalculated the figures in the Sales and Gross Profits rows. The 
cell pointer is now at R6C2, the next unlocked cell. If you want, 
you can alter the value in this cell, then watch the changes on the 
profit picture. Already you can see that gross profits dropped 
from $5000 to $3000 in January, with similar reductions in the 
following months. 

You might want to press the NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key several 
more times to see which cells remain unlocked. 



147 



Multiplan 

Unlocking Cells 



To unlock cells again, press L (for Lock ), then C(for Cells ). In the 
"cells" field, specify the whole active area of the worksheet, as 
follows: 

Press the HOME key (for the upper left corner of the 
worksheet). 

Press : (colon, to create a range). 

Press the END key (for the most lower left cell that contains 
data or has been formatted). 

Press RETURN. 

All cells should now be unlocked. Press the NEXT UNLOCKED 
CELL key several times; the cell pointer should move from one 
cell to the next, just as if you were pressing the RIGHT direction 
key, except that blank cells are still skipped. 



The Options Command 



As you have seen, if you change the contents of a cell, such as 
January Sales, Multiplan recalculates all of the cells that depend 
upon that cell. 



148 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



Use the Goto command to move your pointer to row 3, column 2. 
Change January sales by typing 30000. Press RETURN and 
watch the remaining sales and profits figures change. 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


1 #2 


2 

January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


May 




$30000.00 


$30300.00 


$30603.00 


$30909.03 


$31218.12 


Material 

Labor 

Overhead 

Total Costs 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 


$15000.00 


$15300.00 


$15603.00 


$15909.03 


$16218.12 


19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C2 30000 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Likewise, if you change the formula in row 3, column 3 (under 
February), to reflect a 2% increase (*102%), Multiplan will 
automatically recalculate the worksheet. 

If your worksheet contains many formulas, each change may 
require several moments to complete the recalculation. To speed 
up entering a number of changes, you can turn off the automatic 
recalculation option by using the Options command. Press O. 



OPTIONS recalc: Yes' No mute: Yes(No) 

iteration: Yes No completion test at: 

Select option 

R3C3 RC[-1]*102% 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



149 



Multiplan 



Select "No" by pressing N. 

Press RETURN. 

Now change the number for January sales to 10000 and press 
RETURN. You will see that only the cell for January sales changed. 









only this 
















cell changes 
1 










#1 


1 #2 


2 , 


/• 


4 


5 




1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 




January J 


February 


March 


April 


May 




J 

$10000.00 


$20400.00 


$20604.00 


$20810.04 


$21018.14 














6 


Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 

9 

10 1 
11 

12 


Overhead 
fetal Costs 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 














13 














14 














15 Gross Profits 


$5000.00 


$5400.00 


$5604.00 


$5810.04 


$6018.14 


16 














17 














18 














19 














20 














COMMAND 


: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type com 


mand letter 










R3C2 


10000 




84% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 



150 



Windows, Copying Formulas, and Options 



During the time the option to recalculate is turned off, you can do 
a one-time calculation by pressing the RECALC key ( ! ). Press the 
RECALC key, and watch the screen. The worksheet has been 
recalculated. Gross Profits (row 15) now shows losses in par- 
entheses. 



#1 


1 #2 


2 


3 


4 


5 




1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 




January 


February 


March 


April 


May 




$10000.00 


$10200.00 


$10302.00 


$10405.02 


$10509.07 














6 


Material 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


7 


Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 
9 
10 
11 
12 


Overhead 
Total Costs 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 














13 














14 














15 Gross 
16 


Profits 


($5000.00) 


($4800.00) 


($4698.00) 


($4594.98) 


($4490.93) 


17 
18 
19 




parentheses 
show losses 






20 













V 



COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C2 10000 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Use the Options command to change back to automatic recalc- 
ulation (Options, Yes, RETURN). (Your work has already been 
saved by the earlier Transfer Save command. ) 



151 



Multiplan 

Summary 



In this session you learned: 

How to fix row and column titles to let you view the head- 
ings while you scroll the worksheet (Window Split Titles). 

How to open a new window (Window Split). 

How to link windows so that they scroll together, either by 
rows or by columns, or both (Window Link). 

How to draw a border around a window (Window Border). 

How to enter a formula to show an increasing sales per- 
centage. 

How to copy a formula into other cells to the right (Copy 
Right review). 

How to lock cells that contain formulas or text so you can 
perform "what if" experiments. 

How to use the NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key to find cells 
that contain typed in numbers. 

How to unlock locked cells. 

How to use the Options command to suspend the Multiplan 
automatic recalculation feature. 



152 



Chapter 6 

Printing a Worksheet 



The Print Command 155 
The Print Printer Command 156 
Other Print Subcommands 157 
Summary 158 



153 



Printing a Worksheet 



You have now become familiar with the basic command structure 
of Multiplan, using the keyboard and commands to build a work- 
sheet that responds quickly and accurately to changes. 

In this session you will learn to use the Multiplan Print command 
to print a copy of the summary operating budget that you de- 
veloped to show Spencer Ceramics' projected sales and profits. 
You can print your work on paper or save it in a disk file. 



The Print Command 



Start up Multiplan and load the SPENCER file. Next, use the 
Multiplan Print command to get a paper copy of your work. 
Press P. 



PRINT: Printer File Margins Options 

Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(RC[-12]:RC[-1]) 



84% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



Multiplan 's proposed response for the Print command is "Print- 
er." You can press P or RETURN to have your worksheet printed. 

Multiplan has set margins that it uses unless you specify dif- 
ferent ones. 



These margins are: 

left 

top 

print width 

print length 

page length 



5 characters 

6 lines 

70 characters 
54 lines 
66 lines 



155 



Multiplan 



Multiplan will print as many columns across the page as will 
fit within these margins. Any columns left over will be printed 
on a second page, with row and column numbers continued. 

This method of printing permits you to cut and paste the 
printed pages to form a worksheet with the same dimensions 
you set up on the screen. 



The Print Printer Command 



Before you print the worksheet, be sure the printer is connected 
properly, turned on, and ready to print. To produce a paper copy 
of your worksheet, press P or RETURN. Your worksheet should 
now be printing on your printer. 

The printed pages should look something like the next three 
illustrations: 



January February March April May 

Sales $20000.00 $20200.00 $20402.00 $20606.02 $20812.08 

Cost 

Material $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

Labor $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 

Overhead $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 



Total Costs $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 



Gross Profits $5000.00 $5200.00 $5402.00 $5606.02 $5812.08 



June July August September October November 
$21020.20 $21230.40 $21442.71 $21657.13 $21873.71 $22092.44 



$4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

$7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 $7000.00 

$4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 $4000.00 

$15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 $15000.00 



$6020.20 $6230.40 $6442.71 $6657.13 $6873.71 $7092.44 



156 



Printing a Worksheet 



December Sum 
$22313.37 $253650.06 



$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 



$15000.00 $180000.00 



$7313.37 $73650.06 



Other Print Subcommands 



The Print command includes several other subcommands. These 
subcommands are summarized here. For descriptions of these 
subcommands, refer to Chapter 9, "Command Directory," in 
Part 2. 



Print File 

This subcommand lets you store a printable version of a work- 
sheet on diskette. This printable "file" version of the worksheet 
has several uses: 

You can print the worksheet at any time and repeatedly; If you 
do not have a printer available, you would need to have a disk 
copy to take to another computer for printing; You can call up 
the worksheet for editing with a word processing program you 
might have and include the worksheet in reports prepared by the 
word processing program. 



157 



Multiplan 



Print Margins 

This subcommand lets you set the margins for printing a work- 
sheet. 



Print Options 

This subcommand lets you select what you want to print. 

You may print: 

Only the parts of the worksheet you specify. For example, 
you could specify just the column showing the sums for 
sales, costs, and gross profits (column 14). 

The formulas in the cells instead of the values. For example, 
with the formulas option turned on, Multiplan would print 
Sales — Total_Costs (the formula for Gross Profits) instead 
of $5000.00. 

The worksheet with row and column numbers included. 



Summary 



In this session you learned: 
How to start printing. 
What other subcommands are part of the Print command. 



158 



Chapter 7 

Using Multiple Worksheets 



Relating Worksheets to Each Other 163 

The Transfer Clear Command 164 

Building a Supporting Sheet 165 

Naming Related Worksheets 170 

The external Copy Command 171 

Revising a Supporting Sheet 179 

Dissolving Connections between Worksheets 182 

The external List Command 185 

Summary 186 

Learning More about Multiplan 187 



159 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



In this session you will learn to use information from other 
worksheets in entries and formulas on your active sheet. 

The worksheet you have been compiling for Spencer Ceramics is 
a summary worksheet showing sales, costs, and gross profits. It 
is based on information for one month, which was then projected 
into the remaining months of the year to show potential profits. 
Review the data you already have. Transfer Load the SPENCER 
worksheet. Your worksheet should look like this: 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


1 #2 


10 
September 


11 
October 


12 
November 


13 
December 


14 
Sum 




$21657.13 


$21873.71 


$22092.44 


$22313.37 


$253650.06 


Cost 

Material 

Labor 

Overhead 

Total Costs 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 




$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$180000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross 

16 

17 


Profits 


$6657.13 


$6873.71 


$7092.44 


$7313.37 


$73650.06 


19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(RC[-12]:RC[-1]) 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



On this summary sheet, the costs of many types of items are 
added together to calculate the cost of materials and overhead 
for each month. You are now ready to use more detailed in- 
formation about the company. 

Look at the following breakdown of Spencer Ceramics' material 
and overhead costs for January. 



161 



Multiplan 



Material 




Overhead 




Clay 


$1500 


Utilities 


$1100 


Glaze 


1500 


Rent 


2500 


Brushes 


500 


Telephone 


200 


Sponges 


200 


Water 


200 


Plaster 


300 


Total 


$4000 


Total 


$4000 







In the course of business, Spencer Ceramics would keep a record 
of each type of item that makes up Material and Overhead shown 
on the summary sheet. Your report on Spencer Ceramics would 
be more complete if you added these details. You can do this by 
setting up a worksheet for costs, which will supply totals for 
rows 6 and 8 of the summary sheet (we are assuming for the 
present that labor costs will remain the same). 





supporting sheet 
will provide data 
for "material" (R6 
and "overhead"(R 


) 
8) 














#1 1 \#2 

1 \" 

2 \ 

3 Sales \ 


2 
January 


3 

February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 
May 


\ 


$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 




5 Cost V 

6 Material \ 

7 Labor 

8 Overhead 
9 

10 Total Costs 

11 

12 


$4000.00 

.$7000.00 

$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 




$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 


$5000.00 


$5200.00 


$5402.00 


$5606.02 


$5812.08 




18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank C 
Name Options 
Select option or type comn 
R6C2 4000 


opy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
land letter 

84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 


J 



162 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Relating Worksheets to Each Other 



With Multiplan, you can set up separate worksheets, which can 
draw information, as needed, from one another. The information 
on Spencer Ceramics could be set up to relate like this: 



Summary 






Detail 


Costs 








Materials 




Materials 






4 












Overhead 
Total $4000.00 




Overhead 






SPENCE 


R 



Dependent Sheet 



Supporting Sheet 



Sheets that provide data for another sheet are called supporting 
sheets: they support the calculations of the other sheet by 
providing data to it. Sheets that use data from other sheets are 
called dependent sheets: they depend on the data of other sheets 
for their calculations. 

Once a supporting worksheet has been set up, named cells on the 
supporting sheet may be copied to the dependent sheet. 

If, for example, a cost figure changes on the Costs supporting 
sheet, related numbers on the summary (dependent) worksheet 
will change as well, the next time the summary sheet is loaded. 



163 



Multiplan 

The Transfer Clear Command 



Use the Transfer Clear command to clear the screen so that you 
can build a new worksheet. 

Note The Transfer Clear command clears the sheet of all 

numbers, text, name definitions, and other in- 
formation. It prepares a completely new sheet. The 
information on the screen is destroyed unless it has 
been saved. Therefore, if you have entered any new 
information you want saved since you loaded the 
sheet, be sure to save it first. 

Your screen will look just as it does when you first start up 
Multiplan: 



#1 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: jjjjjIJBIank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R1C1 100% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



164 



Using Multiple Worksheets 

Building a Supporting Sheet 

It is not necessary to construct an elaborate supporting sheet to 
illustrate how Multiplan draws from other worksheets. 

Before you continue with the new figures, a summary of the 
process of connecting worksheets will give you an idea of what's 
to come. 

First, you will build a supporting sheet to calculate the 
values you want to use in your work on the summary 
(dependent) worksheet. 

Second, Name the groups of cells that contain the values 
you want to use. 

Third, Transfer Save the supporting sheet. 

Fourth, Transfer Load the dependent sheet. 

Fifth, external Copy the named cells from the supporting 
sheet. 



165 



Multiplan 



Build the supporting sheet, using the following sample worksheet 
as a guide; enter on your supporting worksheet the data that is 
circled: 




Row 8 = total 

material costs 



total 
overhead costs 



COMMAND:||i(iii Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R15C2 SUM(R[-4]C:R[-1]C) 97% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



166 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Because you will use only the total costs of materials and overhead 
on the summary sheet, you need to set up only the totals of those 
two main categories, using row 8 for Total Material Costs and 
row 15 for Total Overhead Costs, as follows: 



#1 1 
1 


2 3 4 5 6 7 
January February 


\ 


2 Material 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

8 Total 
9 
10 Overhead 






$4000.00 








11 






12 






13 






14 






15 Total 


$4000.00 




16 






17 






18 






19 






20 






COMMAND:||jj||Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or 


type command letter 




R15C2 4000 


99% Free MultiplamTEMP 


J 



On the SPENCER worksheet, we projected a 1% increase in 
sales each month. We know that costs will increase as sales 
increase. Include these increases in your worksheet. Starting 
with February, enter a formula increasing total costs in each 
category by 0.8% (RC[-1]*100.8%). Copy these formulas to the 
right 10 cells. 



167 



Multiplan 



#112 3 4 5 6 7 

1 January February 

2 Material 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 Total $4000.00 $4032.00 $4064.26 $4096.77 $4129.54 $4162.58 

9 

10 Overhead 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Total $4000.00 $4032.00 $4064.26 $4096.77 $4129.54 $4162.58 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R15C3 RC[-1]*1.008% 94% Free Multiplan: TEMP 



You need to name two groups of cells before you connect this 
worksheet with the SPENCER summary worksheet. The con- 
nections between worksheets are made through defined names. 
You will recall that you already defined names on the SPENCER 
worksheet: Sales, Material, Labor, and Overhead. 

Use the same process here to define names on the supporting 
sheet for the two groups of cells that you will copy to the 
SPENCER worksheet. 



168 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



For now, define Materialcosts to refer to R8C2:13. 
Move the cell pointer to R8C2. 
Press N. 

Type Materialcosts. 
Press TAB. 
Press : (colon). 
Type 13. 



NAME: define name: Materialcosts to refer to: R8C2:R8C13 



Enter reference to cell or group of cells 
R8C13 RC[-1]*1.008% 



94% Free Multiplan:TEMP 



Press RETURN. 
And, define Overheadcosts to refer to R15C2:13. 
Move the cell pointer to R15C2. 
Press N. 
Type Overheadcosts. 



NAME: define name: Overheadcosts to refer to: R15C2:13 



Enter name 

R15C2 RC[-1]*1.008% 



94% Free 



Multiplan:TEMP 



proposed 
response 
is correct 



169 



Multiplan 



Press RETURN. 

Now, you will want to save this worksheet with a name that 
indicates a relationship between the supporting (detail) 
sheet and the dependent (summary) sheet. The next section 
describes one way to name related worksheets. 



Naming Related Worksheets 

Each supporting worksheet must be given a name and saved in a 
file. That filename is used with the external command to make 
the data accessible to dependent sheets. Multiplan is able to find 
any worksheet on the diskette being used, but giving the sheets 
related names makes it easier to keep track of them and use them 
quickly and accurately. 

You named the first worksheet SPENCER. Using a form of that 
name for related worksheets (which are also files once they have 
been saved) will help you to recognize later which sheets belong 
together. It is helpful to capitalize the names of the sheets to 
distinguish them from cell names, but it is not essential. If 
necessary, refer to the discussion of filenames in the "Operating 
Information" section at the beginning of this volume. 

To name a supporting sheet, you could follow this procedure: 

1. Use the general filename first (or some abbreviation of it). 



SPEN 




170 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Next, append an additional name or abbreviation to create 
the supporting filename (a name that quickly identifies the 
worksheet to you as a supporting worksheet of the main 
(dependent) worksheet). 



name of 

supporting 

sheet 



SPENCOST 



The external Copy Command 



Transfer Load SPENCER. Your screen should look like: 



#1 

"™"*1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


1 #2 


10 
September 


11 
October 


12 
November 


13 
December 


14 
Sum 




$21657.13 


$21873.71 


$22092.44 


$22313.37 | 


$253650.06 


Cost 

Material 

Labor 

Overhead 

Total Costs 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 




$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$15000.00 


$180000.00 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 


$6657.13 


$6873.71 


$7092.44 


$7313.37 


$73650.06 


18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: §|j|||Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

"Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R3C14 SUM(RC[-12]:RC[-1]) 84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



171 



Multiplan 



Move the cell pointer to R6C2. 

The external command is selected by pressing X ( for "external" ) 
Press X. 



EXTERNAL: Copy List Use 

Select option or type command letter 
R6C2 4000 



84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press C or RETURN to select "Copy." The command line should 
look like: 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: 


name: 




to: R6C2 


linked:(Yes)No 




Enter filename 






R6C2 4000 


84% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 



In the first field ("from sheet"), type the name of the supporting 
sheet from which you want to copy information. Type S PEN- 
COST. 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: SPENCOST!* 
to: R6C2 

Enter filename 

R6C2 4000 



name: 
linked:(Yes)No 



84% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



name of 

"supporting" 

external 

sheet 



172 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



TAB to the second field ("name"). Type the name of the group of 
cells you want to copy to the active cell. Type Materialcosts. 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: SPENCOST 

to: R6C2 
Enter name on external sheet 
R6C2 [SPENCOST Materialcosts] 



name: Materialcpsts • 
linked:(Yes)No 



80% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



name defined 

on supporting sheet 



Notice that the third field ("to") proposes the active cell as the 
beginning of the area to receive the copied information. This is 
the correct response because you positioned the cell pointer 
before starting to use the external command. 

The proposed response in the "linked" field is "Yes." This means 
that a permanent connection will be set between SPENCER and 
SPENCOST. You want a permanent connection between work- 
sheets whenever you will put the current figures on one worksheet 
but want the summary to be on another, as you have been doing 
with SPENCOST ( current figures) and SPENCER (summary). 

Leave the "Yes" response as is; press RETURN. 

Something's wrong! In the message line you see: 



COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xtemal 
Cannot copy into non-blank cell 
R6C2 4000 | 80% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



error 
message 
on message 
line 



173 



Multiplan 



The external Copy command, unlike the regular Copy commands, 
only copies into blank cells to protect the information on the 
active sheet from inadvertent elimination. So, you must first 
blank out the cells in row 6. 

Press B (for Blank). Press : (colon). Press the RIGHT direction 
key until the cell pointer reaches column 13. Press RETURN. The 
cells in row 6, columns 2 through 13 should be blank. 



#1 


1 #2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 




January 


February 


March 


April 


May 




$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 














6 


Material ( 












7 


Labor i 


i $7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 
9 

10 1 


Overhead 


$4000.00 


$4032.00 


$4064.26 


$4096.77 


$4129.54 


otal Costs 


$11000.00 


$11032.00 


$11064.26 


$11096.77 


$11129.54 


12 




destina 


tion of 






13 




externa 


1 copy 












14 




must b 


e blank 




$9168.00 


$9337.74 


$9509.25 




15 Gross Profits 


i 


$9000.( 


X) 


$9682.54 


16 














17 














18 














19 














20 














COMMAND 


Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 




Name Options 


> Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type comn 


nand letter 










R6C2 






81% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 



Now, use the external Copy command again, as described above. 
Briefly: 

1. Press X. 

2. Press C. 

3. Type SPENCOST. 



174 



Using Multiple Worksheets 

4. Press TAB. 

5. Type Materialcosts. 

6. Press RETURN. 

The values from SPENCOST should now appear on your screen: 



#1 1 is 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 


January 


February 


March 


April 


May 


$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 












6 Material 


$4000.00 


$4032.00 


$4064.26 


$4096.77 


$4129.54 


7 Labor 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 Overhead 

9 

10 Total Costs 
11 
12 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$4000.00 


$15000.00 


$15032.00 


$15064.26 


$15096.77 


$15129.54 












13 












14 












15 Gross Profits 


$5000.00 


$5168.00 


$5337.74 


$5509.25 


$5682.54 


16 












17 












18 












19 












20 












COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 


Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 




Select option or type com 


nand letter 










R6C2 [SPENCOST h 


aterialcost 


3] 80% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 




active cell 


shows 












sheet nan 


e and 












defined m 


ime 












of cells cc 


pied 











175 



Multiplan 



Now, Name the area. Press N. 



NAME: define name: SPENCOST.Materialcosts to refer to: R6C2:13 



Enter name 

R6C2 [SPENCOST Materialcosts] 



80% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



proposed response 
is sheet name 
and defined name 
from external copy 



Multiplan proposes to define the name SPENCOST. Materialcosts 
to refer to R6C2:13, the area that received the values. To define 
the name, simply press RETURN. 

When the Name command is used immediately after an external 
Copy command, Multiplan proposes the response in the "name" 
field of the external Copy command as the name to be defined. 
This makes it easy to define names for the cells that receive 
values from another worksheet. Simply press JV, then RETURN 
as soon as you finish each external Copy command. This is the 
only time the name on the supporting sheet is proposed as a 
name on the active sheet. 

Now, let's copy information from SPENCOST for Overhead 
costs. Move the cell pointer to R8C2. 



176 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Remember: you must first blank out the cells that will receive the 
values from another sheet. Press B, then : (colon). Type 13. Press 
RETURN. You should see: 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 

a 


1 #2 


2 

January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 
May 




$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 


Material 

Labor 

Overhead 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 


$4032.00 
$7000.00 


$4064.26 
$7000.00 


$4096.77 
$7000.00 


$4129.54 
$7000.00 



Total Costs 



$11000.00 $11032.00 $11064.26 $11096.77 $11129.54 



remember to blank 
destination of 
external copy 



$9000.00 $9168.00 $9337.74 $9509.25 $9682.54 



v: 



15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R8C2 82% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Now, press X (for external), then C (for Copy). 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: 

to: R8C2 
Enter filename 
R8C2 



SPENCOST 



name: 
linked:(Yes)No 



82% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



proposed response is 
sheetname from 
last external copy 



Notice that Multiplan proposes the name of the last worksheet 
named, SPENCOST. 



Ill 



Multiplan 



So all you have to do now is TAB to the "name" field. Press TAB. 
Type Overheadcosts . 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: SPENCOST 

to: R8C2 
Enter name on external sheet 
R8C2 



name: Overheadcosts 
linked:(Yes)No 



82% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



As before, the responses in the "to" and "linked" fields are 
correct. 

Simply press RETURN, and watch the values appear in row 8. 



#1 
1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


1 #2 


2 

January 


3 
February 


4 
March 


5 
April 


6 ^ 

May 




$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 


Material 

Labor 

Overhead 

Total Costs 


$4000.00 
$7000.00 
$4000.00 


$4032.00 
$7000.00 
$4032.00 


$4064.26 
$7000.00 
$4064.26 


$4096.77 
$7000.00 
$4096.77 


$4129.54 
$7000.00 
$4129.54 


$15000.00 


$15064.00 


$15128.51 


$15193.54 


$15259.09 


13 

14 

15 Gross Profits 

16 

17 


$5000.00 


$5136.00 


$5273.49 


$5412.48 


$5552.99 


18 

19 

20 
COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R8C2 [SPENCOST Overheadcosts] 80% Free Multiplan: SPENCER , 



178 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Once again take advantage of the proposed responses for the 
Name command just after an external Copy command. Press N. 



NAME: define name: SPENCOST.Overheadcosts to refer to: R?C2:13 

Multiplan: SPENCER 



Enter name 

R8C2 [SPENCOST Overheadcosts] 79% Free 



J 



proposed response same 
as defining names on 
active worksheet 



Press RETURN. 

The relation between SPENCER and SPENCOST is not per- 
manent until you save the active sheet (SPENCER). Multiplan 
will record the dependency— established with the external Copy 
command— in both saved sheets. After you have saved SPEN- 
CER, SPENCER will always depend on SPENCOST, and 
SPENCOST will always support SPENCER. If you don't save 
SPENCER before you start work on another sheet or before you 
Quit Multiplan, you will have to redo the external Copy com- 
mands when you next load SPENCER. Save the SPENCER 
worksheet now. 



Revising a Supporting Sheet 

Now, you might like to experiment with the SPENCOST sup- 
porting sheet to see how revisions on it affect the SPENCER 
summary sheet. 

Transfer Load SPENCOST. 

Move the cell pointer to R15C2. 

Type 5000. 



179 



Multiplan 



Press RETURN; the values for the total of overhead should 
change. 



IB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

1 January February 

2 Material 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 Total $4000.00 $4032.00 $4064.26 $4096.77 $4129.54 $4162.58 

9 

10 Overhead 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 Total $5000.00 $5040.00 $5080.32 $5120.96 $5161.93 $5203.23 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
COMMAND: Atpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R15C2 5000 91% Free Multiplan; SPENCOST 



Now Transfer Save SPENCOST, pressing Y to confirm over- 
writing the old file. 



180 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Transfer Load SPENCER. As SPENCER loads, you'll see 
"Copying..." messages in the message line: 



TRANSFER LOAD filename: SPENCER 

Copying: SPENCOST Overheadcosts 

R15C2 5000 V 91% Free Multiplan: SPENCOST 



message line 
shows copying 
from supporting 
sheet 



NCEe/ 



TRANSFER LOAD filename: SPENCER 

Copying: SPENCOST Materialcosts^ 

R15C2 5000 91% Free Multiplan: SPENCOST 



These messages tell you that Multiplan is copying the information 
from the supporting sheets onto the dependent sheet. When the 
SPENCER worksheet is displayed, you'll see that Material shows 
$5000.00 for January, and the appropriate amounts for the other 
months. 

If, when you used the external Copy command, you had res- 
ponded "No" in the "linked" field, the SPENCER worksheet 
would not have been affected by the revisions to SPENCOST. 
You will want to select "No" in the "linked" field whenever the 
data you copy will never change or, if it does change, you don't 
need the change reflected on the "dependent" worksheet. 

For example, suppose you want to set up the SPENCOST 
worksheet with all the month titles across the top, not just 
January and February as it is now. SPENCER already has all the 
months entered. Instead of typing each month title again, simply 
use the external Copy command without linking (select "No" in 
the "linked" field). The steps would be: Transfer Load SPENCOST 
and Blank January and February (R1C2:3). 



181 



Multiplan 



PressXthen C. Type SPENCER. Press TAB. Type R1C2:13 (the 
range of cells that contain the titles you want). Press TAB twice 
(we're assuming the cell pointer is at the first destination cell). 
Press JVthen RETURN. 

The month titles will appear across the top of the sheet. 

If you do this example, Transfer Save SPENCOST 'then Transfer 
Load SPENCER. 



Dissolving Connections between Worksheets 



At some time you may want to dissolve the connections between 
worksheets. This process is very similar to building the con- 
nections. 

Select the external Copy command; press X, then C. The "from 
sheet" field should show the name of the worksheet last copied; 
in this case, SPENCOST. 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet SPENCOST name: 

to: R8C2 linked:(Yes)No 

Enter filename 
R8C2 82% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



Press TAB to move the "name" field. 

Type the name of the group of cells you want to delete. Let's 
delete the connection with Materialcosts. Type Materialcosts. 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: SPENCOST name: Materialcosts jjj 

to: R6C2 linked:(Yes)No 
Enter name on external sheet 

R6C2 [SPENCOST Materialcosts] 79% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



182 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



Press TAB to move to the "to" field. The entire proposed response 
is highlighted. 



V 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: SPENCOST 

to R6C2-13 
Enter reference to cell C 'group of cells 

R6C2 [SPENCOST Materialcosts] 



name: Materialcosts 
linked:(Yes)No 



79% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



proposed response changes 
to area of 
external copy 



Press the DELETE key; the response disappears. 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: SPENCOST 

to: | 
Enter reference to cellipr group of cells 
R6C2 [SPENCO! T Materialcosts] 



name: Materialcosts 
linked:(Yes)No 



79% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



definition of 
external copy 
deleted 



183 



Multiplan 



Now, press RETURN, and watch the values disappear from row 6. 



#1 


1 #2 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 

2 

3 Sales 

4 

5 Cost 


January 


February 


March 


April 


May 


$20000.00 


$20200.00 


$20402.00 


$20606.02 


$20812.08 












6 


Material 










7 


Labor 


, $7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


$7000.00 


8 

9 

10 


Overhead 
Total Costs 


$4000.00 


$4032.00 


$4064.26 


$4096.77 


$4129.54 


$11000.00 


$11032.00 


$11064.26 


$11096.77 


$11129.54 


11 
12 
















area of external copy 








13 




is now blank 










14 










15 Gross 


Profits $9000.00 


$9168.00 


$9337.74 


$9509.25 


$9682.54 


16 












17 












18 












19 












20 















COMMAND: Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 

Name Options Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 
Select option or type command letter 
R6C2 80% Free Multiplan: SPENCER 



The name you defined after using the external Copy command 
to copy Materialcosts is still a defined name on the active 
worksheet. If you want to delete the definition for the sake of 
tidiness, use the Name command now. Press N. 



NAME: define name: SPENCOST.Materialcosts to refer to: 



V 



Enter name 
R6C2 



80% Free 



Multiplan: SPENCER 



deleted 
definition 
of name 



Multiplan proposes SPENCOST.Materialcosts as the name to 
be defined. Notice that the "to refer to" field is blank. All you 
have to do to delete the definition of SPENCOST.Materialcosts 
as a name is press RETURN. 



184 



Using Multiple Worksheets 



The external List Command 



You may review the connections between worksheets by using 
the external List command. Press X, then L. 



Sheets supporting SPENCER 
SPENCOST 

No sheets depend on SPENCER 




it 




J 




table blanks 
out while list 
is displayed 






" 










status line 
reflects position 
of cell pointer 






to see table 
again. . . 




Press any ke 
R6C2 


y to redraw sere 
SPENCOST Mat 


en 
3rialcosts] 


79% Free 


Multiplan: SPENCER 



The external List command displays what Multiplan knows 
about the relationship between the various sheets. The list of 
"sheets supporting" shows the names used in the present sheet 
that call for values from other, saved sheets. The list of "sheets 
depending on" shows the names of other, saved sheets that call 
for a value or values from the active sheet. 

Notice that SPENCOST supports SPENCER, but not vice versa 
because the copy of the month titles was not a permanent link. 

Press any key to redraw the active sheet on the screen. 



185 



Multiplan 



Once you have entered all of the detail information in new 
worksheets, named the cells you will need, and saved the sheets, 
you will be able to use the external Copy command to copy 
information from as many of these related sheets as you need to 
supply information to the active (dependent) sheet. 



Summary 



In this session you learned: 

How worksheets interrelate. 

How worksheets provide data to and/or take data from 
other worksheets. 

How to clear the screen, using the Transfer Clear command. 

How to build supporting sheets. 

How to define names on supporting sheets. 

How to name related worksheets for easy identification. 

How to use the external Copy command. 

How to revise supporting sheets. 

How to dissolve connections between worksheets. 

How to review the relationships between sheets, using the 
external List command. 



186 



Using Multiple Worksheets 

Learning More about Multiplan 

The example of Spencer Ceramics is completed. 

There are other tasks and other problems to be solved that 
require additional commands and functions. Multiplan provides 
them. 

Multiplan is described completely in Part 2, "Reference to Multi- 
plan." In Part 2, you'll find descriptions of additional commands 
like: 

Delete 

Move 

Sort 

which weren't used at all for the SPENCER worksheet, plus 
additional options and uses for familiar commands like: 

Copy 

Format 

Goto 

Lock 

Options 

Print 

Transfer 

external 

Multiplan provides mathematical, financial, and statistical 
functions for calculations and problem solving. So far you've 
only seen SUM. 



187 



Multiplan 



In addition, in Part 2, you'll find descriptions of additional 
editing keys that make building a worksheet easier. And, you'll 
find an alphabetical list of all the messages Multiplan can display 
on the message line. An appendix of "Helpful Hints" suggests 
ways to save time and space while using Multiplan. 

Now that you've learned how to use Multiplan in Part 1, you can 
use Part 2 to explore the full potential of Microsoft Multiplan. 



188 



Part 2 

Reference to Multiplan 



8 Elements of Multiplan 191 

9 Command Directory 225 

10 Function Directory 309 

11 Message Directory 353 



189 



Chapter 8 

Elements of Multiplan 



The Microsoft Multiplan Worksheet 193 

Entering Commands 196 
Select a Command 197 
Select Responses for the Command 
Fields 198 
Proposed Responses 199 

Editing 200 

Formulas 202 

Numbers 203 

Text 204 

References to Cells 205 

Absolute References 206 
Relative References 206 
Names 209 
Intersection Operator 210 
Range Operator 211 
Union Operator 212 

Logical Values 215 

Error Values 215 

Files 217 

File Handling 217 

Problems with File Access 219 
Problems When Reading 219 
Problems When Writing 219 

External Relationships 220 

Transforming the Worksheet 223 



191 



Elements of Multiplan 



This chapter is divided into six sections that describe 
Multiplan structure, features, and operation. Details of the 
commands, functions, and messages are described in separate 
chapters and are covered only generally in this chapter. 



The Microsoft Multiplan Worksheet 



The worksheet is a rectangle with an arrangement of intersecting 
rows and columns. The sheet may be up to 63 columns wide and 
255 rows long. An area one column wide by one row high is called 
a cell. 

Each cell possesses both a value that may be displayed on the 
Multiplan screen and a formula for computing that value. This 
formula may be as simple as the number 19.95, or it may be more 
complex, containing functions and references to other cells; for 
example, "previous cell times growth rate." 

The potential dependence of the value of one cell on the values in 
other cells is the key idea behind the worksheet. When cells have 
been connected by references among them, a change in one cell 
(for example, changing 19.95 to 18.50), causes Multiplan to 
calculate the effect of the change on all other cells. This process is 
called "recalculating the worksheet." Recalculation may be 
automatic after every change, or it may be turned off (see 
Options command, Chapter 9). When automatic recalculation is 
turned off, one-time recalculation may be caused by pressing the 
RECALCkey(I). 

The order of calculating the cells is automatically chosen by 
Multiplan so that the calculation of each cell precedes the 
calculation of other cells that depend on it. If such an order is 
impossible, the "Circular references unresolved" error message is 
displayed. 

The Multiplan screen is a movable "window" through which to 
view part of the worksheet. When Multiplan starts, only one 
window is open. You may open up to eight windows to the 
worksheet. Each window opened is given a consecutive window 
number. For the following discussion, assume that only one 
window is open, just as when you start a Multiplan session. 



193 



Multiplan 



Across the top of the window are column numbers. Down the left 
edge of the window are row numbers. The row and column 
numbers tell you what area of the worksheet you are viewing. 

Somewhere within the window is a highlighted cell. The highlight 
is called the cell pointer, and it points to the "active cell." Many 
operations do something with the active cell. 

Across the bottom of the screen are four lines of text. The top two 
lines are called the command line. The actions you want Multiplan 
to perform are selected from these commands. The command line 
is discussed more in the "Entering Commands" section. The 
commands are described in Chapter 9, "Command Directory." 

Just below the command line is the message line. The message 
line shows either an error message or a prompt message. An error 
message indicates what the problem is. A prompt message 
indicates in general terms your next step in entering a command. 
The prompt message changes as you work your way through a 
command. See the "Entering Commands" section for more 
information about command entry and Chapter 11, "Message 
Directory" for explanations of message line messages. 

The bottom line on the screen is called the status line. Here, 
Multiplan displays the position of the cell pointer, the current 
contents of the active cell, the percent of free memory, and the 
name of the active sheet. 

The position (row number and column number) of the active cell 
is shown first on the status line. The formula used for calculating 
the value of the active cell is shown next to the coordinates. 
When the contents of the active cell are text or numbers, the 
status line shows the text in double quotes or the number itself. 

The cell pointer can be moved around by using the direction 
keys. 

UP moves the cell pointer towards the top of the window. 

DOWN moves the cell pointer towards the bottom of the 
window. 



194 



Elements of Multiplan 



LEFT moves the cell pointer towards the left edge of the 
window. 

RIGHT moves the cell pointer towards the right edge of the 
window. 

When the cell pointer reaches the edge of the window, the window 
begins to move across the worksheet one cell at a time. This is 
called scrolling. When the cell pointer reaches the edge of the 
worksheet, the cell pointer stops, and the Multiplan alarm sounds. 

The page keys scroll across the worksheet a whole windowful at a 
time in the direction selected. 

The HOME key may be used to go to row 1 column 1 quickly. The 
END key may be used to go to the last row and last column of the 
active area of the worksheet. The active area is the smallest 
rectangle that encompasses the cell in the upper left corner of the 
worksheet (row 1 column 1, referred to as RlCl ) and the last cell 
to the right and down that has been given contents or formatting. 
When Multiplan starts, HOME and END are both at RlCl. 



195 



Multiplan 

Entering Commands 



You direct Multiplan to perform the tasks you want done by 
entering commands. The commands are described individually 
in Chapter 9, "Command Directory." This section describes the 
methods of command entry. 

You select a command when the main command menu is on the 
screen. The main command menu shows the choice of commands: 

Alpha Blank Copy Delete Edit Format Goto Help Insert Lock Move 
Name Option Print Quit Sort Transfer Value Window Xternal 

When this menu is on display, Multiplan is waiting for you to 
select a command. When Multiplan is computing, the main 
command menu is not visible and no message appears on the 
message line. When the main command menu reappears, Multi- 
plan is ready for more commands. 

Some of the main commands have subcommands. In these cases, 
when the main command has been chosen, the main command 
menu is replaced with a subcommand menu. 

Remember: the message line shows a prompt message that 
indicates your next step in entering the command. See Chapter 
11, "Message Directory," for descriptions of these messages. 

To enter a command: 

1 . Select an active cell ( move the cell pointer to the appropriate 
cell), if required by the command to be selected. 

2. Select a command. 

3. Select responses for the command fields. The responses are 
used to specify where to Goto, what to Format, where and 
how to split windows, and so forth. 

4. Press RETURN to carry out the command. Or, press CANCEL 
during the first three steps to cancel the command. 



196 



Elements of Multiplan 



Selecting the active cell is described in the section entitled "The 
Microsoft Multiplan Worksheet." Steps 2 and 3 are described 
below. 



Select a Command 

When you are prompted to select an option from a menu, select in 
one of two ways: 

1. Type the first letter of the option you want, 
or 

2. Use SPACE and BACKSPACE to move the highlight to the 
appropriate command word. SPACE moves the highlight to 
the right, BACKSPACE to the left. Press RETURN. 

When you have selected a command, Multiplan displays the 
main command name followed by either a subcommand menu 
or one or more command fields. Typically, a new subcommand 
menu will follow selection of a main command. Select a subcom- 
mand as you would a main command. 

The command line will show the command and subcommands you 
have already selected in capital letters. For example: 

WINDOW: Split Border Close Link 

Now if "Split" is selected, the command line changes to: 

WINDOW SPLIT: Horizontal Vertical Titles 

Continue selecting subcommands until the command fields are 
displayed. The names of command fields are shown in lowercase 
letters followed by a colon. For example: 

WINDOW SPLIT HORIZONTAL at row: 7 linked: Yes(No) 

This command line has two fields: the "at row" field and the "link- 
ed" field. Note that the "linked" field contains a small menu. 



197 



Multiplan 



Select Responses for the Command Fields 

The next step is to enter responses for the command field or 
fields. There may already be responses in the fields. These are 
responses proposed by Multiplan. If a proposed response suits 
your purpose, you need not enter a response in that field. In fact, 
if the proposed responses in all the fields are suitable, you can 
just press RETURN to carry out the command. 

Entering responses proceeds field by field starting at the first 
one. A highlight indicates the "active" field (the field in which a 
response is being entered). Other fields will not contain a highlight. 

To move the highlight from field to field, press the TAB key. 
Pressing the TAB key when the highlight is in the last field 
returns it to the first field. 

The message line gives you messages prompting entries in the 
command fields. Whenever the message line starts with "Enter...," 
the field must be filled in. To "fill in" the field, either accept the 
proposed response or simply type the characters. For example: 

TRANSFER LOAD filename: INCOME 

Enter filename 

where INCOME was typed. In this case, there is only one field, 
and the TAB key is not needed. Simply press RETURN to carry 
out the command. 

In certain fields, the direction keys may be used to view and 
select from a list of possible responses. The message line will 
indicate when the direction keys may be used. The RIGHT 
direction key will propose the next response on the list; the 
LEFT, the previous response. The UP direction key will propose 
the first response on the list; the DOWN, the last response. 

When the message line shows "Select option," the field contains 
a menu of options. Select the option you want by either of the two 
methods used for selecting commands: either type the initial 
letter or use SPACE and BACKSPACE to move the highlight to 
your choice. Note that when a command field with a menu is not 
active, the current option is shown enclosed in parentheses, as in 
the "linked" field in the example above. 



198 



Elements of Multiplan 



Proposed Responses 

The proposed response depends on the specific command; thus 
proposed responses are described with the commands in Chapter 
9, "Command Directory." However, proposed responses follow a 
few general principles: 

1. When a command field contains a menu, the "proposed" 
response is the current setting. For example, the Options 
command initially appears as: 

OPTIONS recalc:(Yes)No mute:.Yes(No) 

with the highlight on Yes showing the current setting in the 
"recalc" field and the parentheses showing the current 
setting in the "mute" field. Thus, the same menu may be 
used to inspect as well as select options in command fields. 

2 . In other fields , the proposed response will be the one entered 
the last time the command was used. This simplifies entering 
a series of related commands. 

3. Yet other fields reflect the position or contents of the active 
cell. For this reason, positioning the cell pointer before 
selecting a command may be helpful. 

All proposed responses may be edited by using Multiplan editing 
keys, described in the "Editing" section below. 



199 



Multiplan 

Editing 



Microsoft Multiplan provides editing keys to edit responses in 
command fields. Multiplan editing can be used any time you are 
entering responses in command fields. To edit the contents of 
cells, move the cell pointer to the cell, then use the Alpha command 
for cells with text or the Edit command for cells with formulas, 
and edit the proposed responses in the command line. 

Either just after a command is selected or just after pressing the 
TAB key, the whole field containing a proposed response is 
highlighted. 

To replace the proposed response: Type the replacement. Multi- 
plan automatically deletes the proposed response as you type the 
new one. 

To delete the proposed response and leave the field empty: Press 
DELETE. All text that is highlighted is deleted. 

To append to the proposed response: For cell references (when 
the message line shows "Enter reference to cell or group of 
cells"), type a colon (:) or other operator. For other responses, 
press either the CHARACTER RIGHT or the WORD RIGHT key, 
then type the additional text. 

Once the proposed response is altered, one character or word in 
the field is highlighted. This highlight is the edit cursor. The edit 
cursor may be moved to designate where or what to edit. 

Use CHARACTER LEFT, CHARACTER RIGHT, WORD LEFT, 
and WORD RIGHT keys to move the edit cursor. 

The CHARACTER LEFT and CHARACTER RIGHT keys move the 
edit cursor left or right one character. 

The WORD LEFT and WORD RIGHT keys move the edit cursor left 
or right highlighting words or the space or punctuation between 
words. In formulas, the values and the operators are highlighted 
alternately. 



200 



Elements of Multiplan 



To insert new text: Type the text. It will be inserted in front 
of the edit cursor. 

To delete text: Use BACKSPACE to delete characters on the left 
side of the cursor. Use DELETE to delete what is highlighted 
by the cursor. 

To replace text: Delete the old text and type the new. 

The following formula editing keys simplify the typing of 
formulas. These keys all insert text in front of the edit cursor: 

1. As you begin to enter a formula or just after you enter an 
operator, the direction keys (as well as the HOME and END 
keys) can be used to enter a relative cell reference of the 
form: 

R[±n]C[±m] 

in the field by pointing to the cell you want (see the 
"Formulas" section for an explanation of cell references, 
relative references, absolute references, and Names). As 
you move the cell pointer, the reference will change ac- 
cordingly. The cell pointer will return to its original position 
as soon as any key other than a direction key is pressed. 

2. Similarly, the direction keys can be used to enter absolute 
references of the form: 

RnCm 

in fields that accept a cell reference (when the message line 
shows "Enter reference to cell or group of cells"). 

3. Relative references created with direction keys (described 
under item 1 above) may be changed to absolute references 
by pressing the REFERENCE key ( @ ) immediately after the 
direction keys. 

4. Names may be entered easily by pressing the REFERENCE 
key first, then using the direction keys to step through the 
list of defined names. 

5. Finally, a formula may be replaced with its resulting value 
by pressing the RECALC key ( ! ) after the formula is entered. 



201 



Multiplan 

Formulas 



Formulas are "recipes" for calculating values. When these values 
are displayed on the computer screen or printed on a printer, they 
compose the results of a Multiplan worksheet. 

Multiplan works with different types of values, which are 
appropriate in different circumstances: 



Value 



Use 



numbers 



text 



references 
to cells 



logical values 
(true and false) 

error values 



used for financial, statistical, scientific, 
and other calculations. 

characters treated as words, including 
numbers in special displays, such as 
$10.00 or 6/14/81. Text is always shown 
in double quotes ("text") in the status 
line. 

used to express dependency of a value in 
one cell on values in other cells on the 
worksheet. Groups of cells can be spec- 
ified by "intersection," "range," and 
"union" operators. 

used in making conditional, "either-or" 
decisions. 

used as substitutes for values that can- 
not be calculated because of a mistake in 
a formula. For example, the "result" of 
division by is an error value. 



New values may be calculated by combining other values with 
the operators, described below under the topics "Numbers," 
"Text," and "References to Cells"; or by using functions, such as 
MIN or MAX, described in Chapter 10. 

The following sections describe each type of value. 



202 



Elements of Multiplan 



Numbers 



Numbers may be written as integers (123), as decimal fractions 
( 123.45), or in scientific notation. In the latter case, an integer or 
decimal fraction (mantissa) is followed by the letter E and a 
positive or negative integer exponent. This notation multiplies 
the mantissa of the number by 10 raised to the given power. For 
example: 

12.1E2 means 1,210 (12.1 x 10 2 ) 
(note: + sign may be omitted) 

1E-5 means .00001 (1 X 10~ 5 ) 

1.5E + 6 means 1,500,000 

Percentages may be written as numbers followed by % (same as 
division by 100): 

15% means .15 (15/100) 

Numbers are calculated with 14 digits of precision and a decimal 
exponent ranging from —63 to + 63. This means that the smallest 
positive nonzero number is: 

.1 x io- 63 

and the largest one is: 

9.9999999999999 X 10 +62 
Mathematical operators are the following: 

Operator Meaning 

exponentiation. Calculated by the rule: 
a~b = exp(ln(a)*b). 

* multiplication. 

/ division. 



203 



Multiplan 



% percent. Written after the value and has 

the same meaning as / 100. 

+ arithmetic addition. 

— subtraction. May also be used in front of a 

value to denote "negative." 

Operator precedence is: — (negative value) is evaluated first, 
then %, then ", followed by * and /, then + and — (subtraction), 
and finally the logical operators described under "Logical Values" 
below. Parentheses may be used to alter the order in which 
Multiplan performs the calculation when more than one operator 
appears in a formula. 

Chapter 10 describes Multiplan functions for performing math- 
ematical, statistical, and financial calculations. 



Text 



A text value may contain up to 255 characters. Text is written 
enclosed with double quotes ("). Text may not include double 
quotes as a character. For example: 

"salary =" is 8 characters of text 

"1.0" is also text, not a number 

Two text values may be concatenated using the & operator. The 
result is a text value that consists of the left text immediately 
followed by the right. For example: 

" $ " & "1.00" concatenates the text value "$1.00" 

Chapter 10 describes functions that operate on or return text 
values. In particular: 

LEN( T) returns the number of characters in a text value. 

MID(T,s,c) returns a specified part of a text value. 



204 



Elements of Multiplan 

Functions are also provided for converting numbers into text 
and vice versa. For example: 

FIXED(1,2) returns the text "1.00" 

VALUEC'0.1") returns the number .1 

All the functions are described in detail in Chapter 10. 

References to Cells 

References to cells describe the location of one or more cells on 
the worksheet. References are the means of access to the values 
in cells. 

A cell reference consists of a row reference and of a column 
reference, in that order. (You can give cell references by entering 
the column reference followed by the row reference, but Multiplan 
stores the reference in row-column order. ) 

A cell reference indicates the place where a specific row and a 
specific column intersect. 

For example, R4C3 is a reference to the cell at row 4, column 3. 
Assuming that that cell has the value 5, the result of the formula 
R4C3 + lis6. 

column 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




1 














2 














3 














row 4 






5 








5 





























R4C3+1 =6 



Figure 8.1. Cell Reference Gives Access to a Value 



205 



Multiplan 

References may be written three ways: 
as an absolute reference 
as a relative reference 
as a name reference 

Absolute References 

An absolute reference consists of the letters R and C and the 
actual row number and column number (as illustrated above). 

The forms are: 

Form Meaning 

Rn row number n ( 1 — 255 ) 

Cn column number n ( 1 — 63 ) 

Rn:m all rows from n through m 

Cn:m all columns from n through m 

Placing an R form and a C form together denotes the rectangle 
formed by the intersection of the rows and columns: 

Form Meaning 

RnCm single cell at row n, column m 

Rn:mCp:q a rectangle of cells 

Relative References 

A relative reference describes the location of another cell in terms 
of the location of the current cell. ("Current" means the cell that 
contains the cell reference. ) A relative reference gives a direction 
by " + " for right or down or " — " for left or up and a number 
indicating how many rows or columns away from the current 
cell. 



206 



Elements of Multiplan 





1 


2 


3 


4 




1 




















2 












3 






















4 













current cell refers 
to target cell 
by R[ + 2]C[-1] 



target cell 



Figure 8.2. Relative Cell Reference 

The "target" cell is 2 rows down from the current cell (+2) and 1 
column left of the current cell ( — 1 ). 

The forms of relative references are: 



Form 

R 
C 

R[+n] 

C[+n] 

R[-n] 
C[-n] 



Meaning 

current row 

current column 

the row that is n rows below R 
(the + may be omitted) 

the column that is n columns 

to the right of C 

(the + may be omitted) 

the row that is n rows above R 

the column that is n columns 
to the left of C 



207 



Multiplan 



As for absolute references, placing a relative R form and C form 
together denotes the rectangle formed by the intersection of the 
rows and columns. For example: 



Form 



Meaning 



RC[-1] 



the single cell just to the left of the 
current cell 



The difference between absolute and relative references becomes 
apparent only when a reference is copied (see Copy command, 
Chapter 9). Absolute references will refer to exactly the same cell 
or cells in all of the copies. The cells referred to by relative 
references, however, are different for each copy (see Figure 8.3): 



absolute references 



relative references 



b 


_ 
































1 




















a 




a1 




a2 




a3 



c d e 



Figure 8.3. Comparison of Absolute and Relative References 

If a reference in cell a is absolute and refers to cell b, the copied 
references in cells al, a2, and aS will all refer to cell b. 

If a reference in cell a is relative and refers to cell c as 3 rows down 
[+3], cell al will refer to cell d (not cell c), cell al will refer to cell e, 
and cell aS will refer to cell /. 



208 



Elements of Multiplan 



Names 



Names are words used to identify a cell or group of cells. A Name 
may be defined as an absolute reference with the Name command 
(see Chapter 9). The spelling rules for names are: 

Names must start with a letter, 

followed by letters, digits, periods, and underline (_) char- 
acters, 

up to 31 characters maximum. 

Words that are the same as absolute or relative references (for 
instance, RlCl or R) must not be used for names. 

Once defined, a Name may be used as you would use any absolute 
reference. For example, you might define the name Sales to refer 
to R3C2:8. The name of the reference suggests that the calculation 
involves sales figures. The absolute form, R3C2:8, is not 
mnemonically suggestive of sales figures. However, to the 
Multiplan program, the meanings are identical. 

The name in the example above may be illustrated as: 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1 


Sales 
















2 




3 




4 














5 





Figure 8.4. Names as Cell References 



209 



Multiplan 



Three operators may be used to combine references: intersection, 
range, and union. 



Intersection Operator (Space) 

The intersection operator is used to combine two references to 
refer to all the cells that belong to both references. 



reference a 
















reference b 



intersection ai b refers to the shaded area 
(space) 

Figure 8.5. Intersection Reference 



As a specific example, 
RC3 

T 

(space) 
refers to the cell where the current row and column 3 intersect. 



210 



Elements of Multiplan 



C3 



RC3 



Figure 8.6. Relative- Absolute Intersection Reference 

When reference forms are combined (that is, an absolute with a 
relative, an absolute with a name, a relative with a name, or a 
name with a name), the intersection operator must separate 
them to indicate access to the value or values where the two 
references intersect. 

For example: RC3 is not permitted, write R C3 instead. 

If the two references do not intersect, Multiplan returns a 
#NULL! error value. 



Range Operator (Colon) (:) 

The range operator is used to combine two references so that the 
values in a group of contiguous cells may be used. 

The area of a range is the smallest rectangle that includes both 
references. 



211 



Multiplan 



Typically, in a reference written as a:b, the a reference is in the 
upper left corner and the b reference is in the lower right. For 
example: 



a 

a: b 

b 



Figure 8.7. Range Reference 

The range operator may be used to combine any of the reference 
forms (absolute, relative, or name) in any order. 



Union Operator (Comma) (,) 

The union operator is used to combine references to refer to all 
cells that belong to either reference. For example: 



R1C1 

I i 

i i 

R3C1 

R1C1,R3C1 
Figure 8.8. 



212 



Elements of Multiplan 



Each reference in a union may be any form ( absolute, relative, or 
name), an intersection, or a range. 

A union usually refers to cells that are not contiguous. Where a 
union describes contiguous cells, it describes a rectangle as a 
range reference would. For example: 

R1C1,R1C2 equals RlCl:2 



R1C1 


R1C2 




i 

R1C1 | R1C2 


union 
R1C1.R1C2 




range 
R1C1:2 




Figure 


8.9 


but R1C1,R3C1 doe 


s not e 


jqual R 


1:3C1 



R1C1 R1C1 

I i ' 

I I R2C1 



R3C1 R3C1 



union range 

R1C1.R3C1 R1:3C1 



Figure 8.10 

The range reference in the second example includes cells not 
specified by the union reference. 



213 



Multiplan 



References may be used in formulas that require the value of a 
single cell. When the reference describes a single cell and a single 
value is required (for example, R1C1 + 1 ), the value meant is the 
value of the cell described plus the value 1. (Note that this value 
may be a number, text, logical, or error value, depending on the 
value in the cell referred to. ) 

When the reference describes a group of cells but a single value is 
required, Multiplan chooses the value to be used from the cell 
where the current row or column intersects the group of cells. In 
particular, for groups that are parts of rows, Multiplan chooses 
the value in the current column. Similarly, from parts of columns, 
the value in the current row is chosen. Figure 8.11 illustrates a use 
for this feature. Using a group of cells that is not either a row or a 
column (or a part of one of these) does not yield useful results. 



500 



600 



800 



75 



90 



120 



1000 



income 



income*15% = 
(income C)*15% 
= 150 



Figure 8.11. Single Value from a Reference to a Group of Cells 

Chapter 10 contains descriptions of the functions that can process 
a collection of values ( SUM( . . . ) f or instance ). Any type of reference 
may be given as an argument to such a function. The value of all 
the cells that are described, whether one or many, will be 
processed. 



214 



Elements of Multiplan 



Logical Values 

The logical values true and false are returned by the comparison 
operators that compare two numbers: 



Operator 


Meaning 


< 


less than 


< = 


less than or equal 


= 


equal 


> = 


greater than or equal 


> 


greater than 


<> 


not equal 



The functions AND( ... ), OR( ... ), NOT(... ), TRUE( ), and FALSE( ) 
also perform logical operations. 

The purpose of logical values is to make "either-or" decisions 
using the IF(...) function. All of these functions are explained in 
Chapter 10. 

Note that text values cannot be compared, except by the Sort 
command. 



Error Values 

When a Multiplan function, operation, or reference is used 
incorrectly, an error value will result. There are different error 
values for different error conditions, as described below. Error 
values "propagate," meaning that operations or functions that 
result in error values in one cell cause the same error values in all 
the cells that refer to the first cell. This also means that when one 
notices an error value in a cell, the propagation has to be unraveled 
step-by-step until the source of the error is found. 

For example, we notice that cell R1C1 displays the #NAME? 
(undefined name) error value. The formula in R1C1 is a+1. We 



215 



Multiplan 



check the definition of a using the Name command. We find that 
the name a is defined to refer to R1C2. That cell is the next step in 
the search. When we look in cell R1C2, we may find the cause 
there, but we may also find references to other quantities which 
will have to be inspected. We may have to look at more than one 
cell to find the source of the error. 

The error values and their causes are: 

Value Cause 

#DIV/0! result of an attempt to divide by 0. 

#NAME? result of an undefined label reference. 

#N/A result when the value is not available. Also, 

#N/A is a special value that may be created 
using the NA( ) function and which will be pro- 
pagated by arithmetic. 

#NULL! result of specifying an intersection of disjoint 

areas; e.g., Rl R2 (use union instead, R1,R2). 

#NUM! result of overflow (number is too large or too 

small ) or of an illegal use of an arithmetic func- 
tion; e.g., SQRT(-l). 

# RE F ! result of a relative reference reaching outside the 

sheet or of a reference to a deleted area. 

# VALUE ! result of using text where a number is needed or 

vice versa or of using references when a value 
is needed. 



216 



Elements of Multiplan 

Files 



This section describes how Multiplan uses files, when it reads 
and writes files and how links between files are handled. 

This information will help better plan your use of Multiplan 
files. 



File Handling 

Files are permanent repositories of information kept on disk- 
ettes. Files are identified by filenames, which are kept in a 
directory. Multiplan uses files mainly to store worksheets. For 
more information on diskettes, see the section entitled "Opera- 
ting Information." 

Multiplan can read files, and it can write them. For both opera- 
tions, Multiplan requires access to the file. 

However, the machine may have more than one disk drive and 
different files may reside on different diskettes. It is important, 
then, to make sure that the proper diskette is mounted in the 
proper drive. 

If the filename includes a drive specification, then that drive is 
the proper one. Otherwise, the "default" drive (assigned through 
the Transfer Options command) is used. 

See also the section entitled "Operating Information" and the 
Transfer Options command in Chapter 9 for details. 

Efficient operations with multiple diskettes may require some 
advance planning. Should the planning fail, however, Multiplan 
will simply display the message: 

Enter Y to retry access to filename 

When 3'ou see this message, check the diskette and replace it, 
if necessary 



217 



Multiplan 



The following lists describe when Multiplan reads files, when it 
writes files, and what problems Multiplan may have with reading 
and writing files. This information may help you anticipate file 
access by Multiplan. 

Multiplan reads files: 

1. When a sheet is loaded (Transfer Load command) in any 
mode (Normal, Symbolic, Other). 

2. When a sheet is loaded that has supporting sheets, the 
supporting sheets are read one by one. 

3. When the external Copy command is executed, the source 
sheet is read. 

4. When the external Use command is executed, the affected 
copies are redone, and the source sheets are read. (See the 
external Use command in Chapter 9. ) 

5. The Multiplan system diskette will be read for parts of the 
Multiplan program when commands are executed and for 
the Help file when Help is requested. 

Multiplan writes the file to the diskette : 

1. When a sheet is saved (Transfer Save command) in any 
mode. 

2. When a sheet is renamed or deleted, the file directory is 
read or written. The file directory, by definition, shares the 
diskette with the worksheet files. 

3. When the Print File command is executed. 

4. When sheet linking relationships change, a Transfer Save 
or Transfer Rename command, in addition to normal duties, 
gains access to all supporting sheets to issue or to revoke 
receipts. 



218 



Elements of Multiplan 



Problems with File Access 



You should be aware of problems to consider when trying to read 
or write a file. If problems with file access persist, check for 
possible causes from the following lists. 



Problems When Reading 

1. The information may not be on the diskette. Use the 
Transfer Load command and the direction keys to display 
the directory of files on the diskette. 

2. The information is not reliably readable or is unreadable. 
You should maintain backup copies of important files. 

3. The information is not in the expected format. Check the 
"mode"setting of the Transfer Options command. Remem- 
ber that the external Copy command requires that sheets 
be saved in Normal mode. 

4. The information is not up to date. This may happen if 
incorrect procedures are used for updating a collection of 
externally linked sheets. See the section, "External Rela- 
tionships," for details. 



Problems When Writing 

1. The diskette may become filled. Diskettes can store only a 
limited amount of information. As more files are stored on 
them, they may fill up. See the section entitled "Operating 
Information" for procedures for determining the amount of 
storage used on a diskette. 

2. Previous information stored in a file may be valuable. 
Multiplan will ask you: 

Overwrite existing file? 

Pause and reflect if this is what you want. 

3. The diskette may be write-protected by a small piece of foil 
covering an indentation on the sleeve of the diskette. Con- 
sider the reason for write-protection before removing the 
foil. 

219 



Multiplan 



Errors during writing, such as an interruption, may leave 
incorrect information on the diskette. Make sure that write 
operations are allowed to complete. 



External Relationships 

The information in this section applies to the external group of 
commands. Refer to the discussion of these commands in Chapter 
9 for additional information. 

External relationships between worksheets may be illustrated as 
follows: 





links 




links 






— * 




■ w i*. 

»- X 

t ■ 


Y — 


-V 


-■ 



receipt 
from A 



receipt 
from X 



Active Sheet 



Sheets 
depending 
on Y 



Sheets 
supporting A 



Sheets 
supporting X 



Sheets 
depending 
on A 



Figure 8.12. External Relationships between Worksheets 

The set of external links can be reviewed by stepping through the 
supporting sheet names and the source and target areas in the 
external Copy command. 

Changing data on a supporting sheet has no immediate effect on 
its dependent sheets. Only when a dependent sheet is loaded is 



220 



Elements of Multiplan 



the current information read from its supporting sheet. Thus, 
when changes are made to sheet Y, nothing changes on sheet A 
until sheet A is loaded. When sheet A is loaded, then sheet Y is 
read, and its data is copied to sheet A. 

Similarly, when sheet A is changed (including changes from 
sheet Y), sheet X does not change until it is loaded. When sheet 
X is loaded, then sheet A is read, and its data is copied to sheet X. 
Note that for the information read from A to X to be current with 
the information on Y, A must have been loaded and saved at least 
once before X was loaded. Information is copied only one link at a 
time. 

In a more complex set of worksheets, the relationships between 
the worksheets may be unraveled using the external List 
command on each sheet and creating a dependency diagram 
similar to the one above. 

Consistency of all data can be assured by starting with a set of 
sheets that are not supported by any sheets. Load and save a 
second set of sheets that depend on the set of unsupported 
sheets, then load and save sheets that depend on the second set 
of sheets, and so on until all sheets have been loaded and saved. 

This process is illustrated in the following diagram: 













































i 


' 




1 


' 


[ 


D 




""*■ b 


























1 


' 














w r 





Figure 8.13. Dependency Diagram 



221 



Multiplan 



Sheets A and D are not supported by any other sheets. If the 
information on them is current, then: 

1. Load and save sheets C and B. 

2. Load and save sheet E. 

3. Load and save sheet F. 

When preparing the dependency diagram, remember that the 
list of "depending sheets" on each sheet is not necessarily 
complete. For example, the listing of sheets depending on A is 
contingent on a "receipt" being issued when the link was established 
byB. 

A "receipt" is an entry in the supporting file that says sheet B 
receives data from this sheet. When you give the external List 
command, Multiplan looks at the receipts to build the list of 
"Sheets depending on." The "receipt" must have been written 
correctly onto A just after B was saved. If, for any reason, 
Multiplan cannot enter the receipt onto sheet A, the "depending" 
list on A is not current. Even so, the data from the supporting 
sheets can be copied as specified by the external Copy command. 

The list of "supporting" sheets will always be correct. 



222 



Elements of Multiplan 

Transforming the Worksheet 



The information in this section applies to the Delete, Insert, 
Move, and Sort commands. Refer to the discussions of these 
commands in Chapter 9 for additional information. 

When rows or columns are inserted, deleted, moved, or sorted, 
sections of the worksheet may be displaced. For example: 

1. One column is inserted before column 2. This moves the 
part of the worksheet that is to the right of column 2 one 
column farther to the right. 

2. Row 2 is moved to before row 10. Besides moving the 
contents of row 2 to row 9, the former rows 3-9 are displaced 
one row toward the top of the sheet. 

Because these commands may change the location of cells, 
Multiplan also automatically adjusts any references to the cells, 
whether they occur in formulas or in the definition of names. 
However, the adjustments to some references after the worksheet 
has been transformed may cause problems. The problems fall 
into the following general categories : 

1. References to cells which have been deleted from the sheet 
are replaced by #REF! error values. All formulas that 
contained the references must be edited. These formulas 
are found by inspecting the cells that display the #REF! 
error value. 

2. If the reference is to a group of cells and the transformation 
would distort a rectangular part of the group into a more 
complex shape (for example, if a corner cell is deleted from 
a rectangular area), the name definition is not changed. 

3. If cells are inserted adjacent to a group of cells, references 
to the group are not updated to include the new cells. If the 
enlargement of the group is desired, the insertion must be 
made in the interior of the group rather than at the 
boundary. If necessary, the new cells may be inserted at an 
unambiguous place (e.g., in the interior of the group), then 
the cell contents copied as required. 



223 



Multiplan 



4. Related problems may occur when rows or columns con- 
taining a boundary of a group are moved. Such moves will 
"drag" the boundary line of the definition of the group 
along. If this is not desired, the move can still be ac- 
complished by an insert, copy, delete sequence. 

5. If a formula is copied into a number of cells using the Copy 
Down, Copy Right, or Copy Prom commands, the relative 
references in all of the formulas are adjusted equally. The 
model formula for the adjustment is the first one en- 
countered on the sheet. This means, for example, if the 
formula 

RC[-1]*1.05 

is copied from R1C2 to R1C14, and if column 5 is deleted, 
all formulas will be adjusted according to R1C2; no change 
in this case. However, if column 1 is deleted, the reference 
in R1C2 will become #REF! (see rule 1 above), and the 
other formulas will follow accordingly. To fix undesirable 
results, edit the model formula and recopy it. 

Note that the Sort command may move many rows and, therefore, 
may cause any of these problems. 



224 



Chapter 9 
Command Directory 



Alpha 230 




Blank 232 




Copy 233 




Copy Down 
Copy From 
Copy Right 


234 

235 

238 


Delete 239 




Delete Column 
Delete Row 


240 
241 


Edit 242 




Format 243 




Format Cells 245 
Format Default 249 
Format Default Cells 
Format Default Width 
Format Options 252 
Format Width 253 



250 
251 



Goto 255 

Goto Name 256 
Goto Row-col 257 
Goto Window 258 

Help 259 



225 



Multiplan 



Insert 261 

Insert Column 262 
Insert Row 263 

Lock 264 

Lock Cells 265 
Lock Formulas 266 

Move 267 

Move Column 269 



Move Row 270 


Name 271 




Options 273 




Print 274 




Print File 275 




Print Margins 


276 


Print Options 


277 


Print Printer 


278 


Quit 279 




Sort 280 




Transfer 282 




Transfer Clear 


283 


Transfer Delete 


284 


Transfer Load 


285 


Transfer Options 


287 


Transfer Rename 


288 


Transfer Save 


289 


Value 291 





226 



Command Directory 



Window 293 

Window Border 294 

Window Close 295 

Window Link 296 

Window Split 298 

Window Split Horizontal 299 
Window Split Titles 300 
Window Split Vertical 301 

external 302 

external Copy 303 
external List 306 
external Use 307 



227 



Command Directory 



The following directory explains each Multiplan command. 

At the beginning of each command description, the complete 
menu for the command or subcommand is shown with proposed 
responses. In most cases, the proposed response is derived from 
the position and contents of the active cell. For consistency of 
reference, a general notation is used for proposed responses, as 
follows: 

RC indicates the active cell 

R indicates the row number of the active cell 

C indicates the column number of the active cell 

W indicates the active window 

( ) indicates a description of proposed response; for ex- 
ample, (contents of RC) 

Other proposed responses, usually numbers, are shown as they 
appear when the command is used. 

The examples provided are intended to give you a sample of the 
uses for the command. A short description of the action to be 
performed precedes a command format with proposed responses 
in the fields. To recreate the example yourself, use any of the 
methods for entering responses until your command line looks 
like the example. 

All commands are terminated (carried out) by pressing the 
RETURN key. 

Related and similar commands are listed under the heading "See 
Also." Commands that offer subcommands are described only 
generally under the main command heading. Refer to the sub- 
command descriptions for the details of performing a particular 
action. 



229 



Multiplan 

Alpha 



ALPHA: (contents of RC) 
Enter text (no double quotes) 



Description 



Places text in the active cell. If the active cell already contains 
text, that text is the proposed response to the Alpha prompt. 

The proposed response may be edited, but if you simply begin 
typing, the proposed response is replaced entirely. 

The Alpha command is terminated by pressing the RETURN key 
or any action key that moves the cell pointer, such as the 
direction keys. 

The contents of a cell containing text are displayed in double 
quotes in the status line. Multiplan supplies these double quotes 
automatically. 

Alpha may not be used to blank a cell. Use the Blank command 
for this. 

The Alpha command is highlighted in the command menu when 
Multiplan is idle. This means that ( 1 ) Alpha can be selected by 
pressing RETURN; and (2) if RETURN is pressed inadvertently, 
you may find yourself in the Alpha command. 

Entering text or values in a sequence of cells is made easier be- 
cause of the following feature: 

If either the Alpha or Value command is terminated by an 
action key that moves the cell pointer, the cell pointer is 
moved appropriately, and Multiplan displays on the com- 
mand line: 

ALPHA/VALUE: 

Enter text or value 

The first character entered, selects the standard Alpha or 
Value command. The Value command is selected if you press 



230 



Command Directory 



one of the digits 0-9 or one of the characters = (equals), + 
(plus), - (minus), . (period), ( (left parenthesis), or " (quo- 
tation mark). The characters selecting the Value command 
have the same effect as when selecting from the main com- 
mand menu. This effect is described under the Value com- 
mand in this chapter. All other characters select the Alpha 
command. 

This process can be repeated for entering text, numbers, and 
formulas in successive cells, until the RETURN or CANCEL 
key is pressed. 



Example 

To enter the text Net Profit into the active cell: 

ALPHA: Net Profit 

To enter the text Spencer, the text Sales and the number 1000 
in adjacent cells, press A (for Alpha), type Spencer, press the 
RIGHT direction key, type Sales, press the RIGHT direction 
key, type 1000, and press RETURN. 

See Also 

Format Cells Continuous to permit the display of cell contents to 
cross a cell boundary. 

Format Width to accommodate text within a column. 

Name to create names for cells. 

Value to enter numbers or formulas. 



231 



Multiplan 

Blank 



BLANK cells: RC 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 



Description 



Replaces contents of specified cells with blanks. The proposed 
response permits quick blanking of the active cell. 

The format of the cell is not changed. The cell is still available for 
storing values. 

Names are not affected. If a cell was named before the Blank 
command was used, that name will still apply. 

When a formula refers to a blank cell, its number value is taken 
as zero, or its text value is a blank. 



Examples 

To blank the cell in row 3 column 2: 

BLANK cells: R3C2 
To blank all cells in the area named Sales: 

BLANK cells: Sales 
To blank an irregular area: 

BLANK cells: R1:6C1,R7:8 

See Also 

Delete to remove cells from the sheet entirely. 
Transfer Clear to clear the entire sheet. 



232 



Command Directory 

Copy 

COPY: Right Down From 

Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents a choice of ways to copy some cells into other cells. Both 
the contents and the formats of the source cells are copied. 
Source cells are not altered. 

Copy Right copies one cell or a column of cells into cells to 
its right. 

Copy Down copies one cell or a row of cells into cells below 
it. 

Copy From is the general form and can be used for all 
copying on the active worksheet. Copy Right and Copy 
Down are included because they make a common copying 
task easier. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 

See Also 

Insert to add new cells between existing ones. 

Move to move cells to other locations. 

eXternal Copy to copy cells from an inactive worksheet. 



233 



Multiplan 

Copy Down 

COPY DOWN number of cells: 1 starting at: RC 
Enter a number 

Description 

Copies the specified cell the number of times specified in the 
"number of cells" field into the cells below it. 

The proposed response for the "number of cells" field is the 
number used in the last Copy Down or Copy Right command. 
The total number of identical cells will be number specified plus 
one (for the original). 

The command can also copy down a row of cells by specifying a 
row or part of a row in the "starting at" field. 

Examples 

To copy the value and format of RlCl into the 10 cells below it: 
COPY DOWN number of cells: 10 starting at: R1C1 

To copy the first five cells in row 1 into the next four rows below: 
COPY DOWN number of cells: 4 starting at: R1 C1 :5 



234 



Command Directory 

Copy From 

COPY FROM cells: RC to cells: RC 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

Description 

Copies the contents of a cell or group of cells to another location 
on the sheet. Copy From is used, for example, when the source 
cells and the destination cells are not in the same row or column. 

When there is only one source cell, the cell contents are copied 
into each destination cell. 

When the source is a group of cells, the entire group is copied. 
When only one destination cell is given but the source is a group 
of cells, the destination cell marks the upper left corner of the 
destination area. 

In general, either the source or the destination should consist of a 
single cell. 

In special circumstances, copying vectors can be accomplished. 
(A vector is a line of two or more cells, either in a row or in a 
column.) Copying from a row to a row or from a column to a 
column is allowed if the source and the destination are the same 
size. If copying is done from a row vector to a column vector, or 
from a column to a row, the resulting copy is a rectangle in which 
the source vector is copied starting at each cell of the target 
vector. 



235 



Multiplan 



The following diagrams illustrate the results of copying vectors, 
as described above: 



destination 



destination 



destination 



a ► a a a 

b b b b 

c c c c 



destination 



a b c 



a b c 

a b c 

a b c 



Figure 9.1. Results of Copying Vectors 

If other forms of copies are attempted, the system cancels the 
Copy command and displays the "Illegal parameter" message. 

Examples 

To copy the contents of cell RlCl into cell R5C3: 
COPY FROM cells: R1C1 to cells: R5C3 

To copy the contents of cell RlCl into all cells in column 8: 
COPY FROM cells: R1C1 to cells: C8 



236 



Command Directory 



To copy a square patch of cells in the upper left corner of the work- 
sheet into a square patch beginning at R8C1: 

COPY FROM cells: R1 :4C1 :4 to cells: R8C1 

The upper left cell of the new patch is R8C1. After the copying, 
R8C1 is a copy of RlCl, R8C2 is a copy of R1C2, and so on to 
R11C4, which is a copy of R4C4. 

Likewise, the same copy can be made by also specifying a dest: 
nation area that matches the source area: 

COPY FROM cells: R1:4C1:4 to cells: R8:11C1:4 

To copy the first four cells in column three into column six: 

COPY FROM cells: R1:4C3 to cells: R1C6 

(upper left of area) 

COPY FROM cells: R1 :4C3 to cells: R1 :4C6 

(matching area) 

To copy the first four cells in column six three times: 

COPY FROM cells: R1 :4C6 to cells: R1C6:8 

The source cells are part of a column while the destination area it 
part of a row. The source column is copied down beginning at 
each cell of the destination. 



237 



Multiplan 

Copy Right 

COPY RIGHT number of cells: 1 starting at: RC 
Enter a number 

Description 

Copies the specified cell the specified number of times into the 
cells to the right of the specified cell. 

The proposed response for the "number of cells" field is the 
number used in the last Copy Down or Copy Right command. 
The total number of identical cells will be the number specified 
plus one (for the original). 

The command can also copy right a column of cells by specifying 
a column or part of a column in the "starting at" field. 

Examples 

To copy the contents of the active cell (RlCl) into the 8 cells to 
the right of it: 

COPY RIGHT number of cells: 8 starting at: R1C1 

To copy the contents of the 5 cells in column 1 (Rl:5Cl) into 
column 2, giving two side by side columns with the same contents: 

COPY RIGHT number of cells: 1 starting at: R1 :5C1 



238 



Command Directory 

Delete 

DELETE: Row Column 

Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents choices for deleting cells from the worksheet and closing 
up the space. 

Delete Row deletes a row or rows and moves the rest up. 

Delete Column deletes a column or columns and moves the 
rest to the left. 

Multiplan adjusts all references affected by any deletion. See 
"Transforming the Worksheet" in Chapter 8 for the description 
of how the Delete command affects references. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 

See Also 

Blank to make cells empty. 



239 



Multiplan 

Delete Column 



DELETE COLUMN # of columns: 1 starting at: C 

between rows: 1 and: 255 

Enter a number 



Description 



Deletes all or part of a column or columns. The proposed response 
for the starting column is the column of the active cell. This 
command is most commonly used to delete complete columns by 
accepting the proposed responses of rows 1 and 255. 

Columns to the right of the deleted columns move left, and new 
columns of blank cells are added at the right edge of the sheet. 

Parts of columns can be deleted. The deletion takes place between 
the specified rows; other rows are not affected. 



Examples 

To delete the entire column 4: 

DELETE COLUMN # of columns: 1 starting at: 4 

between rows: 1 and: 255 

To delete a rectangular area in columns 3 and 4, between rows 3 
and 8: 

DELETE COLUMN # of columns: 2 starting at: 3 

between rows: 3 and: 8 

The portion of the worksheet in rows 3 through 8 which was to 
the right of column 4 will move two columns to the left. 



240 



Command Directory 



Delete Row 



DELETE ROW # of rows: 1 starting at: R 

between columns: 1 and: 63 

Enter a number 



Description 

Deletes all or part of a row or rows. This command is most 
commonly used to delete complete rows by accepting the proposed 
responses of columns 1 and 63. 

Rows below those deleted move up, and new rows of blank cells 
are added at the bottom of the sheet. 

The proposed response for the starting row is the row of the 
active cell. 

Parts of rows can be deleted. The deletion takes place between 
the specified columns; other columns are not affected. 



Examples 

To delete the active row (Rl): 

DELETE ROW # of rows: 1 starting at: 1 

between columns: 1 and: 63 

To delete a rectangular area in rows 6 and 7 between columns 1 
and 8: 

DELETE ROW # of rows: 2 starting at: 6 

between columns: 1 and: 8 

The portion of the worksheet in columns 1 through 8 which was 
below row 7 moves up two rows. 



241 



Multiplan 

Edit 



EDIT: (contents of RC) 
Enter a formula 



Description 



Used to edit a formula or value in the active cell. If you edit text 
with the Edit command, remember to enclose the text in double 
quotes. 

The current contents are shown in the command line. The edit 
cursor is placed at the end of the current contents. 

After you have edited the cell's contents, press RETURN or one 
of the cursor movement keys, such as the direction keys, to put 
the contents into the cell. If you use a cursor movement key to 
place the contents in the cell, Multiplan changes to the ALPHA/ 
VALUE : command rather than returning to the main command 
menu. Refer to the description under the Alpha command. 

Press CANCEL before pressing either RETURN or one of the cur- 
sor movement keys to cancel your changes and to return to the 
main command menu. 

If the cell contains a formula, Multiplan checks the formula for 
errors when RETURN is pressed. If the formula contains an error, 
the erroneous part is highlighted, and the Multiplan Edit com- 
mand remains active. 

See the "Editing" section in Chapter 8 for the description of the 
editing keys. 



See Also 

Alpha for entering or editing text. 



242 



Command Directory 

Format 

FORMAT: Cells Default Options Width 
Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents a choice of various display adjustments. 

Format Cells alters the alignment and format of a cell or 
group of cells. 

Format Default sets the default alignment, format, and 
width for all cells. 

Format Options controls the display of formulas and of 
commas in numbers. 

Format Width sets the width of a column or columns. 

The display of cell contents is controlled by the settings in the 
"alignment" and "format" fields of the Format Cells command. 

The setting in the "alignment" field controls the placement of the 
contents within the available spaces of the cell; whether the 
empty space is placed to the right of the contents, to the left, or 
on both sides. 

The setting in the "format" field, together with the response in 
the "# of decimals" field, controls how the value is displayed, as a 
dollar amount, as a percentage, as a decimal value, and so on. 

In both the "alignment" and "format" fields, there is a "Default" 
setting. The "Default" setting is defined by the Format Default 
Cells command. The settings selected in the "alignment" and 
"format" fields of the Format Default Cells command define the 
display of all cells with the "Default" setting. 

All cells have the "Default" setting initially. (When Multiplan is 
first started, the display is controlled by "General" alignment 
and "General" format.) If you insert new rows or columns, the 
inserted cells receive the default setting. 



243 



Multiplan 



The format given to the default settings can be changed at any 
time by using the Format Default command. This allows you to 
change easily the format of all cells that have the default code 
setting, which may be most of the cells. 

We recommend that you define the most common format you will 
be using as the default, and alter a cell or some cells to display 
their contents differently from the default with the Format Cells 
command. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



See Also 

Print Margins to set the format of a printed copy of the sheet. 



244 



Command Directory 

Format Cells 



FORMAT cells: RC alignment: Def Ctr Gen Left Right - 
format code: Def Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % — # of decimals: 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

Description 

Alters the alignment and format codes of one or more cells. 

The proposed responses are the format codes of the active cell. 
This command may be used to review the settings for the 
active cell. The settings of the active cell may be given to a 
group of cells by changing the response in the "cells" field. 

If you are changing the alignment code of a group of cells but not 
the format code, you must select the hyphen response in the 
"format code" field to keep the format codes as they are. 
Otherwise, all cells in the group will receive the format code of 
the menu setting. 

Similarly, if you want to change the format code but not the 
alignment code of a group of cells, select the hyphen response in 
the "alignment field." 

The alignment codes are: 

Def Default Align this cell by the default align- 

ment. 

Center the cell display in the column. 

Align text left, numbers right. 

Left-justify the cell display in the 
column. 

Right-justify the cell display in the 
column. 



Ctr 


Center 


Gen 


General 


Left 


Left 


Right 


Right 



245 



Multiplan 



— Leave all alignment codes as they 

are. Used when changing the format 
code of a group of cells but not the 
alignment codes. 

Text is displayed only for the width of the cell unless the Contin- 
uous format code is selected. 

The format codes are: 



Def Default 



Display this cell with the default 
format. 



Cont Continuous 



Text longer than the column width 
is displayed at its full width, cros- 
sing into the column on the right 
if necessary (the cell to the right 
must be blank and must have the 
Continuous format also). Numbers 
are displayed in the General format 
code. Typically, you will want to 
format an entire row when using the 
Continuous format code. 



Exp Scientific 



Numbers are displayed as a decimal 
notation times a power of ten; for 
instance, 2.1E6 for 2100000. The 
number of decimal places used is set 
in the "# of decimals" field of the 
Format Cells command. 



Fix Fixed Point 



Numbers are displayed rounded to a 
fixed number of digits of decimal 
fraction. The number of decimal 
places is set in the "# of decimals" 
field of the Format Cells command. 



Gen General 



Numbers are displayed as precisely 
as possible in the available width of 
the cell, with scientific notation used 
automatically, as needed. 



246 



Command Directory 



Int Integer Numbers with a decimal fraction are 

rounded to integers. 

$ Dollar Money amounts are displayed with 

a leading dollar sign and two deci- 
mal places. Negative numbers are 
shown in parentheses. 

* Bar graph When the cell contains a number, it 

is rounded to an integer and that 
many asterisks are displayed. For 
example, all values between 2.5 and 
3.5 are displayed as three asterisks. 

Use the Bar graph format code to 
build a bar graph. Negative numbers 
are shown in parentheses. Only as 
many asterisks as the width of the 
cell allows are shown. To see all as- 
terisks, use the Format Width com- 
mand to widen the cell. See also the 
REPT function for creating bar 
graphs composed of other characters. 

% Percent Numbers are displayed as a percen- 

tage. The number of decimals is set 
in the "# of decimals" field of the For- 
mat Cells command. For example, 
the value .1 will be displayed as 10% 
if the # of decimals is zero; or as 
10.0% if the # of decimals is 1. 

— Leave all format codes as they are. 

Used when changing the alignment 
code of a group of cells but not the 
format codes. 

The "# of decimals" field is used only for the Fix, Exp, and % 
format codes. If you enter a response to this prompt for the other 
format codes, your response is ignored. If you are not specifying 
one of these three format codes, you can simply press RETURN 
after specifying the format code. 



247 



Multiplan 



Examples 



To align the contents of the active cell (R5C15) in the center of 
the available spaces: 

FORMAT CELLS: R5C15 alignment: Def (Ctr) Gen Left Right - 
format code: (Def) Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % - # of decimals: 

To display the cells in column 2, rows 3 through 6 as money 
values preceded with a dollar sign and displayed with two dec- 
imal places: 

FORMAT CELLS: R3:6C2 alignment: (Def) Ctr Gen Left Right - 
format code: Def Cont Exp Fix Gen Int ($) * % - # of decimals: 

Notice that the alignment of all cells in this group is now 
"Default." If any of the cells had an alignment setting other 
than "Default" and if you want to preserve the special alignment, 
select the hyphen response instead of the "Def" response in 
the "alignment code" field. 

To display the values in rows 1 through 12 of column 10 as 
percentages with four decimal places accuracy: 

FORMAT CELLS: R1 :1 2C10 alignment: Def Ctr Gen Left Right (-) 
format code: Def Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * (%) - # of decimals: 4 

Any alignment already specified for any of the cells in this group 
is retained. 



See Also 

Format Default to set the default format. 

Format Width to set the width of specific columns. 



248 



Command Directory 

Format Default 

FORMAT DEFAULT: Cells Width 

Description 

Presents a choice of two kinds of defaults to be changed. 

Format Default Cells sets default alignment and format 
codes. 

Format Default Width sets the default width of all col- 
umns. 

See Also 

Format Cells to alter the format and alignment codes of specific 
cells. 

Format Width to alter column widths of specific columns. 



249 



Multiplan 

Format Default Cells 



FORMAT DEFAULT CELLS alignment: Ctr Gen Left Right 
format code: Cont Exp Fix Gen Int $ * % # of decimals: 



Description 



Sets the alignment and format for all cells that have the default 
setting. The initial default alignment and format code is General. 

The alignment and format codes are listed and described under 
the Format Cells command. 



Example 

To set the default format code to money amounts ($): 

FORMAT DEFAULT CELLS alignment: Ctr (Gen) Left Right 
format code: Cont Exp Fix Gen Int ($) * % # of decimals: 



250 



Command Directory 

Format Default Width 

FORMAT DEFAULT column width in chars: 10 
Enter a number 

Description 

Sets the width of all columns that have the "default" width set- 
ting. See "Format Width" for an explanation of default width. 

The initial default width is 10 characters. 

Example 

To set the default width to 12: 

FORMAT DEFAULT column width in chars: 12 

See Also 

Format Width to alter the width of some columns. 



251 



Multiplan 

Format Options 

FORMAT OPTIONS commas: Yes No formulas: Yes No 
Select option or type command letter 

Description 

The proposed responses are the current settings of the options. 

For cells that have "Fix," "Int," "$," or "%" format settings, the 
comma option groups a number into thousands and separates 
the groups with commas. For example, a number such as 12345678 
under the comma option would be displayed as 12,345,678. 

The formulas option permits you to see what generates the value 
in every cell. A cell normally displays the value of a formula 
placed in it. Selecting "Yes" for the formulas option causes cells 
that contain formulas to display their formulas instead of their 
values. The width of all columns is doubled. Cells that contain 
text display their contents in double quotes. 

When the "formulas" option is off (No), check the formula in a 
cell by using the Edit command or by moving the cell pointer to 
the cell; the formula will appear in the status line. 

Example 

To display formulas in the cells that contain them: 

FORMAT OPTIONS commas: Yes(No) formulas: (Yes)No 



252 



Command Directory 

Format Width 

FORMAT WIDTH in chars or d(efault):d column: C through: C 
Enter a number or d for default 

Description 

Alters the width of one or more columns to the number of charac- 
ters specified. 

The proposed response for the "in chars or d(efault)" field is 
always d. "d" is a special "default" setting, similar to the default 
setting for format and alignment codes. When the width setting 
is "d", the column width is controlled by the Format Default 
Width command. 

All columns have the default setting initially. The width of all 
columns with the default setting can be changed easily using the 
Format Default Width command. You can set the most convenient 
width as the default with the Format Default Width command, 
and alter specific columns to other widths with the Format 
Width command. 

If a cell contains text longer than the column is wide, Multiplan 
cuts off the display at the right edge of the column. Use this 
command to widen the column or the "Continuous" cell format. 

If a cell contains a number that cannot be displayed in the 
column width, Multiplan displays a series of number signs ( # ) 
instead. This can be fixed by widening the column, or sometimes 
by using a different format code. 

Examples 

To change the width of column 1 : 

FORMAT WIDTH in chars or d(efault): 12 column: 1 through: 1 



253 



Multiplan 

To change the width of columns 4 through 8 to 20 characters: 
FORMAT WIDTH in chars or d(efault): 20 column:4 through: 8 

See Also 

Format Cells to set Continuous format code. 

Format Default Width to set the default column width. 



254 



Command Directory 

Goto 

GOTO: Name Row-col Window 
Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents a choice of ways to move the cell pointer to a new 
position. 

Goto Name makes the first cell of a named area the active 
cell. 

Goto Row-col makes the specified cell the active cell. 

If a requested cell is already visible through the active window, 
only the cell pointer is moved. 

If the requested cell is not visible through the active window, the 
active window is shifted so that the named area appears in the 
specified window. 

Goto Window makes the specified cell the active cell and 
places it at the upper left corner of the specified window. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



255 



Multiplan 

Goto Name 

GOTO name: 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

Description 

Places the cell pointer on the upper left corner cell of the named 
area, making that cell the active cell. 

Use the direction keys to step through the list of names. 



Example 



To move the cell pointer to the upper left corner of the area na- 
med SumCosts: 

GOTO name: SumCosts 



256 



Command Directory 

Goto Row-col 

GOTO row: R column: C 
Enter a number 

Description 

Places the cell pointer on the specified cell, making that cell the 
active cell. 

Examples 

To move to row 25 in the active column (column 1): 

GOTO row: 25 column: 1 

The proposed response in the "column" field was not changed. 

If rows 1 through 20 are visible through the window when you 
enter this command, the window will be shifted so that cell 
R25C1 is visible in the upper left quarter of the active window. 

To make row 37, column 9 (R37C9) visible: 

GOTO row: 37 column: 9 



257 



Multiplan 

Goto Window 

GOTO WINDOW window number: W row. R column: C 
Enter a number 

Description 

Places the specified cell in the upper left corner of the window 
specified. 

If you use this command with the proposed responses, which are 
the active window and active cell, Multiplan redraws the active 
window, placing the active cell in the upper left corner. 

Examples 

To set the active cell as the upper leftmost cell of window num- 
ber 3: 

GOTO WINDOW window number: 3 row: 5 column: 15 

To set cell R100C45 as the upper leftmost cell of window number 
5: 

GOTO WINDOW window number: 5 row: 100 column: 45 



See Also 

Window Split to open windows. 



258 



Command Directory 

Help 



HELP: Resume Start Next Previous 

Applications Commands Editing Formulas Keyboard 

Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Provides helpful information about Multiplan. 

Help information is read from a diskette file. Information in the 
Help file is requested two ways: either (1) selecting Help from 
the main command menu, or (2) pressing the HELP action key, 
except when using the Alpha command (this places a question 
mark as a response to Alpha). When you request Help, the 
worksheet is replaced by text from the Help file, and the Help 
command menu appears. 

The worksheet display resumes when you either select the 
"Resume" subcommand (press R or RETURN) or press CANCEL. 
"Resume" returns to the exact place where Help was requested. 
CANCEL returns to the main command menu. 

The information displayed depends on when Help is requested. 
In particular: 

If you use SPACE or BACKSPACE to highlight a command 
word in a menu, a description of that command is shown 
when you request Help. 

If the edit cursor is in a command field, a description 
of that field is shown. 

If the message line shows an error message, either a 
description of the previous command or a description of 
the error is shown. 



259 



Multiplan 



Once in the Help command, you can request Help information by 
selecting one of the following options on the Help menu: 



Option 

Resume 

Start or HOME 

Next or 
PAGE DOWN 



Previous or 
PAGE UP 



Commands 



Editing 



Formulas 



Keyboard 



Result 

Return to the menu where you reques- 
ted Help. 

Show the beginning of the Help file. 

Show the next screenful of Help infor- 
mation. Typically, not all the relevant 
information is shown, and Next (press 
the letter N) should be used. 

Show the previous screenful of Help 
information. 



Applications Show a list of common problems pair- 

ed with the names of the commands 
that offer solutions. 



Show the description of the first com- 
mand (Alpha). 

Show the description of Multiplan 
editing. 

Show a list of all functions and the 
rules about formulas. 

Show the keytop labels correspond- 
ing to Multiplan action keys. 



260 



Command Directory 

Insert 

INSERT Row Column 

Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents a choice of ways to insert new cells into the 
worksheet. 

Insert Row inserts new rows, moving the rest down. 

Insert Column inserts new columns, moving the rest 
to the right. 

Multiplan adjusts all references affected by the insertion. See 
"Transforming the Worksheet" in Chapter 8 for the description 
of how the Insert command affects references. 

The Insert command will not be carried out if the insertion 
would push data off the edge of the sheet. If, for example, 
you have data in column 63, an attempt to insert even one 
column will receive the message "Illegal parameter." Sim- 
ilarly, if you have data in column 50 and attempt to insert 
14 columns, you will receive the "Illegal parameter" message. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 

See Also 

Move to move rows or columns on the sheet. 
Delete to remove rows or columns. 



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Multiplan 

Insert Column 



INSERT COLUMN # of columns: 1 before column: C 
between rows: 1 and: 255 

Enter a number 



Description 



Inserts all or part of a column or columns of blank cells. This 
command is most commonly used to insert complete new columns 
by accepting the proposed responses of rows 1 and 255. 

Parts of columns can be inserted. Insertion takes place between 
the specified rows; other rows are not affected. 

Cells to the right of the inserted ones move right. 



Examples 

To add a column just left of the active one (column 3): 

INSERT COLUMN # of columns: 1 before column: 3 
between rows: 1 and: 255 

To insert a rectangular area in columns 5 and 6 between rows 
3 and 8, causing parts of rows 3-8 to move right to make room: 

INSERT COLUMN # of columns: 2 before column: 5 
between rows: 3 and: 8 



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Command Directory 



Insert Row 



INSERT ROW # of rows: 1 before row: R 

between columns: 1 and: 63 



Description 



Inserts all or part of a row or rows of blank cells. This command 
is most commonly used to insert complete rows above the active 
row by accepting the proposed responses of the active cell and 
columns 1 and 63. 

The command can be used to insert parts of rows. Insertion takes 
place between the specified columns; other columns are not affec- 
ted. 

Cells below the ones added move down. 



Examples 

To insert a new row above row 7: 

INSERT ROW # of rows: 1 before row: 7 

between columns: 1 and: 63 

To insert a rectangular area in rows 4 and 5 between columns 1 
and 8, causing the lower parts of columns 1-8 to move down to 
make room: 

INSERT ROW # of rows: 2 before row: 4 

between columns: 1 and: 8 



263 



Multiplan 

Lock 



LOCK: Cells Formulas 

Select option or type command letter 



Description 



Provides two ways to lock cells to protect them from accidental 
change. 

Lock Cells locks and unlocks selected cells. 

Lock Formulas locks all cells that contain text or formulas. 

The values of locked cells cannot be changed by the commands 
Alpha, Blank, Copy, Edit, Value, or external. 

Locked cells are still affected by the commands Delete, Format 
Cells, Insert, Move, and Sort. 

When some cells are locked, the NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key posi- 
tions the cell pointer on the next unlocked cell that is not blank. 
Using Lock and this action key, you can quickly locate variable 
quantities on a complex worksheet and perform "what if" exper- 
iments. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



264 



Command Directory 

Lock Cells 

LOCK cells: RC status: Locked Unlocked 
Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

Description 

Displays and changes the protection status of cells. 

The proposed responses show the status of the active cell. 

Lock or unlock selected cells by selecting the appropriate re- 
sponse in the "status" field. 

Cells locked by external Copy may not be unlocked with this 
command. 

Examples 

To lock an unlocked active cell (RlCl): 

LOCK cells: R1C1 status: (Locked) Unlocked 

To unlock the whole worksheet: 

LOCK cells: R1 :R255 status: Locked (Unlocked) 



265 



Multiplan 

Lock Formulas 

LOCK FORMULAS: 
Enter Y to confirm 

Description 



Entering Y locks all cells that contain text or formulas. Cells that 
contain numbers are not affected by the Lock Formulas command. 

The Lock Formulas command protects all values generated by 
formulas. Numbers and any entries made after locking are the 
exception, and you must decide which unlocked cells you want to 
lock. 



See Also 

Lock Cells to lock cells with numbers and to unlock cells. 



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Command Directory 



Move 



MOVE: Row Column 

Select option or type command letter 



Description 



Presents a choice of ways to move cells from one place to another 
on the sheet. 

Move Row moves whole rows. 

Move Column moves whole columns. 

More complex moves can be made by inserting blank cells at the 
destination, copying the source cells into the destination cells, 
then deleting the source cells. 

The destination of a move is identified by the row or column that 
will follow the moved cells. That row may or may not be displaced, 
depending on the direction of the move. 

For example: 



Move 1 to before 5 



Move 5 to before 2 



original 



moved rows 



original 



moved rows 





Figure 9.2 



267 



Multiplan 



Moving cells causes the worksheet arrangement and all refer- 
ences to be adjusted. See "Transforming the Worksheet" in 
Chapter 8 for the description of how the Move command affects 
the worksheet. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



See Also 

Copy to duplicate cells. 

Delete to delete rows or columns. 

Insert to add rows or columns. 



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Command Directory 

Move Column 

MOVE COLUMN from column: C to left of column: C 
# of columns: 1 

Enter a number 

Description 

Moves a group of columns to a new position on the worksheet. 

Example 

To move the active column (column 9) to the left edge of the 
sheet, moving all columns now between the active column and 
the leftmost column right one column to make room: 

MOVE COLUMN from column: 9 to left of column: 1 
# of columns: 1 



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Multiplan 

Move Row 

MOVE ROW from row: R to before row: R # of rows: 1 
Enter a number 

Description 

Moves a row or group of rows to a new position on the worksheet. 

Example 

To move the active row (row 5) to the top of the sheet, moving 
all rows now between the active row and the top row down one 
row to make room: 

MOVE ROW from row: 5 to before row: 1 # of rows: 1 



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Command Directory 

Name 

NAME: define name: to refer to: 
Enter name 

Description 

Assigns a name to a cell or area of cells. The name may then be 
used to refer to that cell or area in a command or formula. 

The proposed response for the "define name" field is either a 
blank or text. If the active cell contains text, Multiplan proposes 
that text, with any illegal characters removed, as the name to be 
defined. This makes it easy to convert a title already given to a 
row or column into a name. 

If cell R5C1 contains the text Costs as a title, then the Name 
command can be used to define the name Costs as R5C2:15. Text 
used as titles and names are very different and should not be 
confused. However, it will be easier to read your formulas if the 
names in them correspond to the visible titles on your worksheet. 

If you want the name to be something besides the proposed 
response, simply type the new response. 

The proposed response for the "to refer to" field is either the 
active cell or, if the last name defined was a vector (portion of a 
row or column), the same vector shifted to the active row or col- 
umn. This feature makes defining parallel groups a simple task. 

If the name you enter is already defined, after you hit TAB 
the proposed response in the "to refer to" field will show the 
current definition. 

Names must begin with a letter. The rest of the characters of a 
name may be any combination of letters, numbers, the period ( . ), 
and the underscore (_). (These rules are the same ones used in 
the BASIC programming language.) Proposed responses are 
automatically made to conform to these rules. Illegal characters 
are ignored and underscores are substituted for blanks embedded 
in text strings. 



271 



Multiplan 



Names may be up to 31 characters long. 

Names may not be a combination of characters that could be 
confused with a reference. See the descriptions of references in 
the "Formulas" section of Chapter 8. 

To see the names that have been defined, select the Name 
command. Use the direction keys to display each defined name 
and its definition in the command fields. 

To change the definition of a name after viewing it, use the edit 
keys to alter the response in the "to refer to" field and press 
RETURN. 

Names are deleted by making them refer to no area. Enter the 
name in the "define name" field, delete the response in the "to 
refer to" field, and press RETURN. 



Example 

To define row 10, columns 3 through 15 as Sales: 

NAME: define name: Sales to refer to: R10C3:15 

See Also 

eXternal Copy for names associated with external links. 



272 



Command Directory 

Options 

OPTIONS recalc: Yes No mute: Yes No 

iteration: Yes No completion test at: 

Select option 

Description 

The proposed responses show the current settings. 

The "recalc" option controls when Multiplan performs formula 
calculations. If the "recalc" option is set to "Yes," Multiplan 
recalculates all formulas whenever a cell is changed. If the "recalc" 
option is set to "No," recalculation is done only when the RECALC 
control key is pressed or during Transfer Save. 

The length of time Multiplan takes to recalculate a sheet depends 
on how many cells are in use, and on the complexity of the 
formulas in them. When you want to make many entries on a 
busy worksheet, set the "recalc" option to "No" for quicker 
response. Set "recalc" to "Yes" again when you want to see the 
effect of each change. 

The "mute" option controls the Multiplan audible alarm. The 
initial setting is "No," which means the alarm sounds when an 
error is made. Select "Yes" when you want to mute the alarm. 

The "iteration" option, and the accompanying completion test, 
allows for the use of numerical approximation methods that 
involve circular dependencies. Such methods are applicable to a 
wide range of problems, which includes solving simultaneous 
equations, calculating internal rate of return, and finding roots 
of equations. Appendix 5, "Solving Extended Problems with the 
Iteration Option," contains a detailed discussion of this powerful 
feature. 

After you press the RETURN key, Multiplan will display in the 
message line its version number and the total bytes of storage 
(corresponding to 100% Free) that are available to Multiplan. 



273 



Multiplan 

Print 



PRINT: Printer File Margins Options 
Select option or type command letter 



Description 



Presents a choice of four actions related to printing the active 
worksheet. 

Print Printer begins printing. 

Print File stores printable output in a disk file. 

Print Margins sets the margins for the printed output. 

Print Options specifies the part of the worksheet to be 
printed and controls part of the printed format and printer 
setup. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



274 



Command Directory 

Print File 

PRINT on file: 
Enter a filename 

Description 

Stores printed output in a disk file rather than sending it to the 
printer. Such files have several uses. The file might be printed at 
a later time. You might use a text editor to alter the file before 
printing it, or you could include the file as an illustration in 
another text file. 

If a file of the same name exists, Multiplan will display the 
message "Overwrite existing file?". Press Y to start printing. 
Pressing any other key cancels the Print File command. 

Example 

To write a print formatted version of a file to the name BUDGET: 
PRINT on file: BUDGET 



275 



Multiplan 

Print Margins 



PRINT MARGINS: left: 5 top: 6 print width: 70 
print length: 54 page length: 66 

Enter a number 



Description 

Alters the margins and page length for printed output. The left 
margin and the print width are given as a number of characters. 
The top margin, print length, and page length are given as a 
number of lines. 

The "print width" field sets the maximum number of characters 
to be printed on each line. The "print length" field sets the 
maximum number of lines of print on each page. The "page 
length" field sets the length of the paper so that a form feed 
advances the paper the correct number of lines to begin printing 
on the next page. The proposed responses are the ones created 
by the last Print Margins command. In addition, margins are 
saved with the sheet. 

When the Print Margins command is complete, the Print com- 
mand is displayed again. 



Example 

A sheet of letter-size paper is 8-1/2" x 11". Assuming the 
printer prints 10 characters per inch across a page and 6 lines per 
inch down a page, the page length is 66 lines and the page width 
is 85 characters. To fill these dimensions, you might want a top 
margin of 3 and a print length of 60 for a bottom margin of 3. A 
print width of 65 characters leaves 20 characters total for the 
right and left margins. To center lines on the page, you need a left 
margin of 10. 

PRINT MARGINS: left: 10 top: 3 print width: 65 
print length: 60 page length: 66 



276 



Command Directory 

Print Options 

PRINT OPTIONS: area: setup: 

formulas: Yes No row-col numbers: Yes No 

Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

Description 

Sets four optional features before printing: 

printing only part of the sheet, 

printing formulas rather than their values, 

suppressing row and column numbers from the printed 
page, 

and some set up of printer hardware. 

If you want to print only part of the worksheet, specify a reference 
to a rectangular group of cells, in the "area" field. 

Depending on your hardware configuration, the "setup" field 
may be used to set up the printer hardware (see the section 
entitled "Operating Information"). 

If you choose to print "formulas," the listing will display the 
actual formulas that appear in each cell, rather than the calculated 
values of the formulas, as it normally would. This feature is 
useful when you want a record of the logic behind a worksheet. 
Column widths are doubled when "formulas" is set to "Yes." 

If you select "Yes" for the "row-col numbers" field, row and 
column numbers will be printed. 

Example 

To print only an area named Factors, which holds discount per- 
centages: 

PRINT OPTIONS: area: Factors setup: 

formulas: Yes(No) row-col numbers: Yes (No) 

277 



Multiplan 

Print Printer 

PRINT on printer: 

Description 

Starts printing the sheet under the conditions set up by the Print 
Margins and Print Options commands. 

The time it takes to print depends on the size of the sheet and the 
speed of the printer. 

Empty columns at the right of, and empty rows at the bottom of 
the sheet are not printed. Multiplan prints as many columns 
across the page as will fit in the print margins. If there are rows 
left over, it prints a second page, repeating the same columns. 
When all the rows have been displayed, Multiplan starts the 
next set of columns on a new page. Thus, if the area to be printed 
is wider than the paper, you can assemble the complete width by 
cutting and pasting later. 

Press CANCEL to interrupt printing. 

If a printer error occurs during printing, Multiplan will display 
the "Printer error" message. 

See Also 

Print File to direct output to a disk file. 

Print Margins to set the dimensions of a page. 

Print Options to print part of a sheet, to print formulas, or 
to print row and column numbers. 



278 



Command Directory 

Quit 

QUIT: 

Enter Y to confirm 

Description 

Ends the Multiplan session. The active sheet is not automatically 
saved. If you wish to save the worksheet, use the Transfer Save 
command before using the Quit command. 

Multiplan will display the message "Enter Y to confirm." If you 
press Y, Multiplan terminates, returning control to the 
operating system. Pressing any other key cancels the command. 

See Also 

Transfer Save to save the active sheet. 



279 



Multiplan 

Sort 



SORT by column: C between rows: 1 and: 255 order: (>) < 
Enter a number 



Description 



Reorders the rows on the worksheet within the specified column 
so that the values will be sorted. 

The proposed response for the column field is the active column. 
The proposed response for the rows is the whole column. The 
proposed sorting order is ascending order, from least to greatest. 

The column to be sorted may contain numbers, text, or other 
values. Sorting collects the different types into the following 
groups: 



1st 


Numbers 


2nd 


Text 


3rd 


Logical and error values 


4th 


Blank cells 



Numbers and text are further sorted into either ascending (>) or 
descending (<) order. Text is arranged according to the ASCII 
standard character sequence, which is, from "least" to "greatest": 

!"#$%&'()* + ,-•/ 0-9 : ; 

< = > ? @ A-Z [ ] ~ ' a-z { ! } 

Within each type, equal values are left in the order Multiplan 
encounters them. 

The worksheet can be sorted on multiple columns. To do this, 
sort the least significant column first. Then, sort the other 
columns one at a time, from the least significant to the most 
significant. The example below illustrates this method. 



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Command Directory 



References on the worksheet are adjusted as described in the 
"Transforming the Worksheet" section of Chapter 8. 

To generate a sorted report without the effects of the adjusted 
formulas, turn off automatic recalculation. Multiplan then dis- 
plays the values calculated before the sort was performed. You 
can print the sorted sheet, but do not save it. 

Note also that numbers intermixed with text in a cell or dates 
represented as text are sorted by the rules of standard alpha- 
betization. For example, "A10" is sorted as less than "A9." 



Example 



To sort a list of checks into categories (in column 1) by amount 
(in column 2 ) with the largest amount at the top of each category, 
first sort all checks by amount in descending order: 

SORT by column: 2 between rows: 1 and: 255 order: > (<) 

The checks are listed from largest to smallest, but with the 
categories unsorted. To sort the categories alphabetically: 

SORT by column: 1 between rows: 1 and: 255 order: (>) < 

The checks are now sorted into categories. The checks within 
each category are arranged from largest to smallest. Because 
Multiplan leaves equal items in the order it finds them in the 
column it is sorting, any previous sorting in other columns is 
retained. 



281 



Multiplan 

Transfer 

TRANSFER: Load Save Clear Delete Options Rename 
Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Offers a choke of six subcommands which affect an entire sheet. 

Transfer Load loads a saved sheet, replacing the active 
sheet. 

Transfer Save saves the active sheet in a disk file. 

Transfer Clear clears the active sheet, deleting all its 
contents. 

Transfer Delete deletes a file on the diskette. 

Transfer Options specifies which disk drive to use, or which 
file format. 

Transfer Rename saves the active sheet under a new name 
and updates external links. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



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Command Directory 

Transfer Clear 

TRANSFER CLEAR: 
Enter Y to confirm 

Description 

Clears the active sheet after you type Y to confirm the command. 
Typing any other key cancels the command. 

Using the Transfer Clear command is almost the same as starting 
up Multiplan; that is, all cells are deleted; all columns are set to 
the default width; the default alignment and format are set to 
General; all names and all links to external sheets are cleared; 
and the sheet name is set to TEMP. The exceptions are that 
options set with the Options, Format Options, Transfer Options, 
and Print Options commands are preserved. 

If a copy of the active sheet has previously been saved with 
Transfer Save, that copy is not affected. 

See Also 

Blank to replace the contents of specified cells with blanks. 

Delete to delete specified cells. 

Transfer Save to save the active sheet as a disk file. 



283 



Multiplan 

Transfer Delete 

TRANSFER DELETE filename: 

Enter a filename, or use direction keys to view directory 

Description 

Deletes a saved worksheet from a diskette. 

Pressing one of the direction keys causes Multiplan to display a 
directory of files on the diskette. To use the direction keys, see 
the directory display explanation under the Transfer Load 
command. Press the RETURN key to select the filename that is 
highlighted. 

When you press the RETURN key, Multiplan displays the message 
"Enter Y to confirm." Press Y to delete the file. Pressing any 
other key cancels the Transfer Delete command. 

Use Transfer Delete to clear your diskette of unwanted files. 



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Command Directory 

Transfer Load 

TRANSFER LOAD filename: 

Enter a filename, or use direction keys to view directory 

Description 

Loads a sheet from a disk file. The disk file's name must be 
spelled and punctuated exactly as it was when the sheet was 
saved with the Transfer Save command. 

Pressing any one of the direction keys causes Multiplan to 
display a directory of files on the diskette. The direction keys 
may be used whether the "filename" field is empty or has a 
filename filled in. 

When the "filename" field is empty, the whole directory is 
displayed. 

When you enter a filename in the "filename" field then press a 
direction key, Multiplan uses the filename you enter as a pattern 
and displays only those filenames on the default diskette that 
match the pattern. The rules of pattern matching are described 
in the section entitled "Operating Information." 

Once the directory is on the screen, use the direction keys to 
move the highlight among the filenames. As you do, the high- 
lighted filename also appears as a proposed response in the 
"filename" field in the command line. Press the RETURN key to 
load the highlighted file. 

While the directory is visible, pressing any other key besides a 
direction key causes the worksheet previously on the screen to 
reappear. This other key has the same effect as it does while 
editing responses in command fields that need to be filled in, as 
described in the "Editing" section of Chapter 8. 

When a "Normal" mode Multiplan worksheet diskette file is 
loaded, it replaces the sheet on display and becomes the active 
sheet. 



285 



Multiplan 



As a special feature, the Transfer Load command can also load 
worksheets from files written by other systems in an acceptable 
interchange format (described under Transfer Options and 
Appendix 4, "The SYLK (Symbolic Link) File Format)." Data 
read from one of these files will be merged with the active 
worksheet, rather than replacing it. To avoid this merging, first 
use the Transfer Clear command. 



Example 

To load a sheet saved in a file named INCOME: 
TRANSFER LOAD filename: INCOME 

See Also 

Transfer Save to save the active sheet as a disk file. 



286 



Command Directory 

Transfer Options 

TRANSFER OPTIONS mode: Normal Symbolic Other setup: 
Select option 

Description 

The "mode" field specifies the file format for all subsequent Trans- 
fer Load and Transfer Save commands. 

The format choices are: 

Normal Multiplan binary format. External refer- 

ences require that the referenced worksheet 
be saved in Normal format. This format is 
also the most efficient use of disk space and 
requires the least transfer time. 

Symbolic The format for data interchange with other 

programs. This format is described in Ap- 
pendix 4, "The (SYLK) Symbolic Link File 
Format." 

Other VisiCalc™ file format. Multiplan can load 

files in this format. The loaded file is merged 
with the active sheet. See Transfer Load and 
Appendix 3. Worksheets cannot be saved 
in Other mode. If you try to do so, Multiplan 
displays an "Illegal parameter" error mes- 
sage. 

The "setup" field changes the default disk drive from the drive 
currently being used to the drive specified. This affects all sub- 
sequent Transfer commands. 

The proposed responses show the current settings. 

Example 

Multiplan was started on drive B:. To simplify use of a data 
diskette in drive A: 

TRANSFER OPTIONS mode: (Normal)Symbolic Other 
setup: A: 



287 



Multiplan 

Transfer Rename 

TRANSFER RENAME filename: (name of active sheet) 
Enter a filename 

Description 

Saves the active sheet under a new name and adjusts external 
links to supporting and dependent sheets. Deletes the file with 
the previous sheet name. (See the "Files" section of Chapter 8 for 
a description of external links.) 

Example 

To rename the active sheet JUNE82: 

TRANSFER RENAME filename: JUNE82 

See Also 

Transfer Load to load a saved sheet. 

Transfer Save to save the active sheet as a disk file. 



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Command Directory 

Transfer Save 

TRANSFER SAVE filename: (name of active sheet) 
Enter a filename 

Description 

Saves the active sheet as a disk file, which can later be loaded 
with Transfer Load. The proposed name for the disk file is the 
name last given with Transfer Save or Transfer Rename, or the 
name last loaded with Transfer Load, or TEMP if the sheet 
is clear or was not previously named. 

If the filename is a duplicate of one that exists on the diskette 
already, the message "Overwrite existing file?" appears when you 
press RETURN. Press Y to replace the file on diskette with the 
worksheet on the screen. Pressing any other key cancels the 
Transfer Save command. 

If you want to rename the sheet, we recommend using the 
Transfer Rename command if you have any external links to 
supporting sheets. Transfer Save will not update the "receipts" 
on the supporting sheets if you rename the active sheet using the 
Transfer Save command. Refer to "Files" in Chapter 8 for a 
discussion of external links and "receipts." 

You can save your Multiplan files in either Normal or Symbolic 
mode. 

Examples 

To save the active sheet under the proposed name, simply press 
RETURN. 

To save the active worksheet under the name PRACTICE: 

TRANSFER SAVE filename: PRACTICE 



289 



Multiplan 

See Also 

Print File to put the displayed form of the sheet in a disk file. 

Transfer Load to load a sheet saved previously. 

Transfer Options to set the mode. 

Transfer Rename to save the worksheet under a new name and 
to update "receipts." 



290 



Command Directory 

Value 

VALU E.- 
Enter a formula 

Description 

Used to enter a formula or a number into the active cell. 

Besides selecting Value from the command menu by highlighting 
Value and pressing RETURN or by typing V, the Value command 
can be selected by: 

1. typing any digit, 0-9 

2. typing one of the characters =, +, — , ., ", and (. (Except 
for the equal sign ( = ), these characters are also entered as 
the first character of the formula. 

Inside formulas the direction keys enter relative references into 
the formula. See the "Editing" section of Chapter 8 for more 
information about editing responses to a command. 

Terminate the Value command by: 

1. pressing RETURN 
or 

2. pressing an action key that moves the cell pointer, such as 
a direction key or the NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key at the 
end of a number or complete formula. The formula or num- 
ber is stored in the active cell, and the cell pointer is 
moved as directed. 

Multiplan then displays 

ALPHA/VALUE: 

and awaits the entry of text or another value. This feature is 
described in detail under the Alpha command. 

Text may be entered if enclosed in double quotes. 

291 



Multiplan 

Example 

The simple method of entering a list of numbers, using a direction 
key: 

31 right 28 right 31 right 30 right 31 r/'gfrf 

is a series of Value commands. 

Note that dates of the form 1/27/82 can be interpreted as 
formulas. Be sure to enter dates as text, using the Alpha com- 
mand, or enclose them in double quotes. 

See Also 

Alpha for entering text and titles or a sequence of text and values. 
Edit for editing formulas. 



292 



Command Directory 

Window 

WINDOW: Split Border Close Link 
Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents a choice of window operations. 

Window Split opens a new window by splitting the active 
window horizontally or vertically, or opens a window used 
for titles. 

Window Border adds or removes a border around a window. 

Window Close closes a window by removing it from the 
screen. 

Window Link links two windows so that their contents 
scroll together. 

The NEXT WINDOW key moves the cell pointer from one window 
to another. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



293 



Multiplan 

Window Border 

WINDOW change border in window number: W 
Enter a number 

Description 

Changes the border of the specified window. If the window 
presently has a border, it is removed. If it lacks a border, one is 
added. 

A border takes up one screen position on each side of the window, 
reducing the area for the display of data by two screen lines and 
two screen columns. 



294 



Command Directory 

Window Close 

WINDOW CLOSE window number: W 
Enter a number 

Description 

Removes the specified window from the screen. The active window 
is the proposed response. 

The size of the remaining windows is increased to occupy the 
screen area used by the closed window. Windows are renumbered. 
Cells contents are not affected by closing a window. 

If there is only one window open, the Window Close command is 
ignored. 

See Also 

Window Split to open windows. 



295 



Multiplan 

Window Link 



WINDOW LINK window number: W with window number: W 
linked: Yes No 

Enter a number 



Description 



Reviews and revises the links between two windows. The links 
may have been established under the Window Split command, or 
they may not exist yet, in which case you may establish links 
between windows split from a common window so that the two 
windows scroll together. 

The proposed responses specify the active window and either a 
window split from the active window or the window from which 
the active window was split. If no window splitting has occurred, 
both proposed window responses will be the active window. 

You may enter any two window numbers as responses. But, only 
those pairs that share the split relationship can be linked. 
Attempts to link other pairs receive the "Cannot link those 
windows" message in the message line. 

When windows are linked, the contents of the two windows scroll 
together. If the window split was horizontal, the synchronized 
scrolling is horizontal. If the window split was vertical, the 
synchronized scrolling is vertical. 

When two previously unlinked windows are linked, one set of 
row or column numbers disappears from the screen. If the pairs 
are related by a horizontal split, the column numbers disappear. 
Columns are identified by the numbers in the window above. 

If the pairs are related by a vertical split, the row numbers 
disappear. Rows are identified by the numbers in the window to 
the left. 

This command is also used to unlink windows, but you cannot 
unlink windows split by the Window Split Titles command. 



296 



Command Directory 



Example 



Window #4 was split from window #1. To link them so that they 
scroll together: 

WINDOW LINK window number: 4 with window number: 1 
linked:(Yes)No 



See Also 

Window Split for a description of window links. 



297 



Multiplan 

Window Split 

WINDOW SPLIT: Horizontal Vertical Titles 
Select option or type command letter 

Description 

Presents a choice of three ways to open a window by splitting the 
active window. 

Window Split Horizontal splits the active window across 
the screen, giving two windows, one above the other. 

Window Split Vertical splits the active window between 
columns. 

Window Split Titles splits the screen both vertically and 
horizontally to display titles in separate windows. 

Up to eight windows may be opened using the Window Split 
commands. 

The Window Split commands retain window borders, giving both 
windows a border if the original window has one. 

See Also 

Window Close to close a window. 

Window Link to link or unlink existing windows. 



298 



Command Directory 

Window Split Horizontal 

WINDOW SPLIT HORIZONTAL at row: R linked: Yes No 
Enter a number 

Description 

The active window is split horizontally. The display space used 
by the given row and the rows below it becomes the new window. 
The space above the given row remains part of the original 
window. 

The new window is given the next unused window number and is 
made the active window. 

The original window and the new window may be linked. If you 
select "Yes" in the "linked" field, whenever you scroll one of the 
windows horizontally, both windows scroll together. Notice also 
that the column numbers of the lower window do not appear on 
the screen. Rather, the column numbers of the window above are 
used to identify columns in the linked window. 

Examples 

To split the active window at the active row, just press RETURN. 

To split the active window at the display line presently showing 
row 34, and to link the windows: 

WINDOW SPLIT HORIZONTAL at row: 34 linked:(Yes)No 

See Also 

Window Link to review or revise links between windows. 



299 



Multiplan 

Window Split Titles 

WINDOW SPLIT TITLES: # of rows: # of columns: 
Enter a number 

Description 

The active window is split to form two or four windows. The 
windows formed are linked so that they scroll together. Windows 
linked by this command cannot be unlinked. 

The specified number of rows becomes a window at the top of the 
display space occupied by the original window, unless the number 
isO. 

The specified number of columns becomes a window at the left of 
the display space occupied by the original window, unless the 
number is 0. 

The remaining display space becomes the active window. It is 
linked for horizontal movement with the window above it, and 
for vertical movement with the window to its left, if any. 

The proposed responses split the window so that the active cell 
becomes the upper left corner cell of the active window. 

Example 

Suppose that column 1 contains descriptive titles for the rows of 
the worksheet, and that columns 2-25 contain data matching 
those titles. You would like to scroll the data columns horizontally 
while holding the titles fixed on the screen. If you scroll vertically, 
both titles and data should move so that the titles will remain 
aligned with the matching data. Move the cell pointer to R1C2, 
then the proposed response will be: 

WINDOW SPLIT TITLES: # of rows: # of columns: 1 

See Also 

Window Border to draw a border around any of the windows. 

300 



Command Directory 

Window Split Vertical 

WINDOW SPLIT VERTICAL at column: C linked: Yes No 
Enter a number 

Description 

The active window is split vertically. The display space used for 
the given column and the columns to its right is used for the new 
window. The space used for columns to the left of the active 
column remains part of the original window. 

The new window is given the next unused window number and 
becomes the active window. 

The original window and the new window may be linked. If you 
select "Yes" in the "linked" field, whenever you scroll one of the 
windows vertically, both windows scroll together. Notice also 
that the row numbers of the right window do not appear on the 
screen. Rather, the row numbers of the window to the left are 
used to identify rows in the linked window. 

Examples 

To split the window at the active column, just press RETURN. 

To split the window at the column presently displaying column 
3: 

WINDOW SPLIT VERTICAL at column: 3 Linked:(Yes)No 

See Also 

Window Link to review or revise links between windows. 



301 



Multiplan 

external 



EXTERNAL: Copy List Use 

Select option or type command letter 



Description 



Presents a choice of actions relating to the use of data on inactive 
(external) sheets. 

external Copy copies data from an inactive worksheet to 
the active worksheet. This command can also establish an 
external link, a permanent relationship that automatically 
causes data to be copied from a source, or supporting sheet, 
to the active, or dependent, sheet every time the latter is 
loaded into Multiplan. 

external List displays the lists of supporting and dependent 
worksheets. 

external Use assigns a substitute name for a specified 
sheet. 

See the "Files" section in Chapter 8 for more information on 
external links and file accesses. 

The subcommands are explained individually on the following 
pages. 



302 



Command Directory 

external Copy 



EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: name: to: RC 
linked: (Yes)No 

Enter filename 



Description 



Copies values from a group of cells on an external worksheet to 
the active sheet. The source sheet is defined in the "from sheet" 
field of the command. The proposed response for the "from 
sheet" field is the most recent new supporting sheet. 

The cells to be copied from the source sheet are described in the 
"name" field. This field may contain a name which is defined on 
the source sheet to refer to a group of cells, or it may be an 
absolute reference to a single rectangle on that sheet (e.g., 
R2Cl:12; see also the discussion of absolute references in the 
"Formulas" section of Chapter 8). 

The "to" field is used to specify the destination of the copy on the 
active sheet. The proposed response is the active cell. If a single 
cell is specified in this field, the source group will be copied 
starting at that cell. If a group of cells is specified in the "to" 
field, the shape of the group must correspond to the shape of the 
source group, cell by cell. Otherwise, an error message is display- 
ed, and the copy does not take place. 

The integrity of the active sheet is further protected by checking 
that all destination cells are blank. An attempt to copy into a 
nonblank cell also causes an error message, and copying is 
canceled. 

The external Copy command does not copy formulas, but only 
the values derived from formulas. This is different from the 
"Copy" group of commands because those commands copy 
formulas as well as values. For example, if a cell containing the 
formula 100* rate is copied from an external sheet, the destina- 
tion cell may receive the constant value 20 (assuming rate = .20). 



303 



Multiplan 



This value alone does not show the dependence of the result on 
changes to the rate cell on an external sheet. The external link 
facility is provided to express permanently the relationship be- 
tween the value on the "dependent" sheet and the source of the 
value (the formula on the "supporting" sheet). 

External links are controlled by the options in the "link" field of 
the external Copy command. If "No" link is selected, the 
command has no other effect than copying the values as describ- 
ed above. Information on possible dependencies is not recorded 
at all. If the source data is not expected to change, this option 
would be the most convenient. 

Selecting "Yes" in the "link" field establishes an external link 
between the source data and the destination. The source sheet 
supports the active, or dependent, sheet. Of course, the same 
sheet may be in suppporting and dependent roles in different 
external links. 

After an external link is established, every time the dependent 
sheet is loaded (using the Transfer Load command), all the data 
described in the external links is automatically copied from the 
source sheets to the specified destinations. Any change in the 
source data is reflected on the dependent sheet. 

The "formulas" associated with the destination cells— as seen on 
the status line or using the "formulas" Format Option— also 
show the data in the cells as dependent on a link, in the form: 

[sheetname sourcename] 

Destination cells are protected from changes just as if they were 
locked. They can be "unlocked" only by removing or redefining 
the external link in which the cells participate. 

To remove a link, specify the source sheet, source name, empty 
destination, and "Yes" for linking in the external Copy com- 
mand. 

To redefine a link so that it has a different destination on the 
active sheet, redefine the link with a new destination on the 
active sheet. Because a source area on an inactive sheet may be 
copied only once by each active sheet, the new destination replaces 
the former one in the link. 



304 



Command Directory 



Both the removing and redefining of links, as well as the review 
of the existing links, is simplified by the use of the direction keys 
to step through the source (supporting) sheet names or the 
names of source cells in a given sheet. The "to" field is filled in 
by Multiplan to show the destination of the external link, as cur- 
rently defined. 

The Name command, when used immediately after an external 
Copy, proposes to define the name 

sheetname.sourcename 

to refer to the destination of the copy. When defined (by pressing 
RETURN), this name can be used in other formulas on the active 
sheet to refer to the copied data. 

The automatic copying process from supporting sheets requires 
that the files that contain the sheets be available to Multiplan. 
This topic is discussed in the "Files" section in Chapter 8. 

Before copying the data in each link, the definition of the name 
for the source cells is checked. If the shape (size) of the named 
area has been changed, an error message is displayed, and the 
copy does not take place. Otherwise, the cells are copied to the 
destination cells, even if the destination cells are not blank but 
contain the results of the previous external copy. 



Example 



To copy the value of the area named Sales from the worksheet 
named INCOME to the area starting at cell R5C5 on the active 
worksheet, and to set a permanent link: 

EXTERNAL COPY from sheet: INCOME name: Sales 

to: R5C5 linked: (Yes)No 

Assuming that the area named Sales is a 12 cell wide part of a 
row, the destination for the copy will be R5C5:16. The Name 
command will propose: 

NAME define name: INCOME.Sales to refer to R5C5:16 



305 



Multiplan 

external List 

EXTERNAL LIST: 

Description 

Produces a display of the names of worksheets supporting the 
active sheet and those dependent on the active sheet. The 
"supporting" and "dependent" relationships are explained in 
detail under external Copy and in the "Files" section in Chapter 



The list of supporting sheets includes the "alias" names defined 
by external Use. 



Example 

Sheets supporting Department: 

Year81 instead of Year 
Labor 

Sheets depending on Department: 
Consolidated 



306 



Command Directory 

external Use 

EXTERNAL USE filename: instead of: 

Enter filename 

Description 

Sets a substitute name (alias) for a sheet. 

The proposed response in the second field is the previous response, 
if any; otherwise, blank. 

All references to the name in the "instead of" field will be directed 
to the name in the "filename" field. Copies from the affected file, 
if any, will be redone. 

The name in the "instead of" field need not be the name of an 
actual file. However, it must not be a substitute name. The 
example shows how the substitution is used. 

Example 

Assume that an active sheet has links to the supporting file 
BUDGET82. To view the figures that result from using the data 
on BUDGET83 instead (which must be identical in format to 
BUDGET82): 

EXTERNAL USE filename: BUDGET83 instead of: BUDGET82 

This saves removing the links from B UDGET82 then redefining 
links to BUDGET83. Also, you can return to BUDGET82 easily 
by specifying BUDGET82 in both fields of this command. 

As an alternative, you could use a "logical name" when referring 
to supporting sheets. (A "logical name" is not the name of an 
actual file, but a name used only for setting up external links. ) 



307 



Multiplan 



Under this method, a substitution must be made through the 
external Use command before setting up links between sheets: 

EXTERNAL USE filename: BUDGET82 instead of: BUDGET 

Then, the name BUDGET, which is not a file but a "logical 
name" used for defining links, may be used to set up the links in 
the external Copy command and as a response in the "instead 
of" field in the external Use command in future substitutions. 
For example, when you want to see the results of your budget for 
1983: 

EXTERNAL USE filename: BUDGET83 instead of: BUDGET 

and all links will now be changed to refer to BUDGET83. 

This method permits you to refer to whatever file you choose in 
the external Use command without having to remember which 
file is the pattern for the substitutions. 



308 



Chapter 10 
Function Directory 



ABS 312 
AND 313 
ATAN 314 
AVERAGE 315 
COLUMN 316 
COS 317 
COUNT 318 
DOLLAR 319 
EXP 320 
FALSE 321 
FIXED 322 
IF 323 
INDEX 324 
INT 325 
ISERROR 326 
ISNA 327 
LEN 328 
LN 329 
LOG10 330 
LOOKUP 331 



309 



Multiplan 



MAX 


333 


MID 


334 


MIN 


335 


MOD 


336 


NA 


337 


NOT 


338 


NPV 


339 


OR i 


340 


PI 341 


REPT 


342 


ROUNE 


) 343 


ROW 


344 


SIGN 


345 


SIN 


346 


SQRT 


347 


STDEV 


348 


SUM 


349 


TAN 


350 


TRUE 


351 


VALUE 


352 



310 



Function Directory 



This chapter describes the functions that can be used in Multi- 
plan formulas. Each entry describes the Operation of a function 
and any special requirements for its argument. 

Use one of the methods described under the Value command in 
Chapter 9 to enter a formula. The functions are entered as part 
of a formula. 

The argument to a function, enclosed in parentheses, follows the 
function name. No space is permitted between the function name 
and the left parenthesis. 

Entries within the parentheses describe the argument to the func- 
tion. The following abbreviations are used in argument descrip- 
tions: 

N represents a number; a formula that yields a number. 
Wherever N is shown, only one entry is allowed. When 
more than one is allowed, List is shown. 

T represents text; a formula that yields text. 

Logical represents a logical value, which must be a refer- 
ence to a single cell, a formula expressing a relation ( = , <, 
>, < = , >=, <>), or a function that returns a logical value. 
Otherwise, a # VALUE ! error value is returned. 

List represents a list of items, separated by commas. An 
"item" may be either a value that represents itself or a ref- 
erence to a group of cells that represent the collection of val- 
ues in those cells. For example, the list 

1,B 

where B is defined as R1C2:3 and RlC2 contains the value 
2 and R1C3 contains the value 3. The list then represents 
the collection of values 1,2,3. Lists may be up to five items 
long, but they may represent any number of values through 
references. 

See the "Formulas" section in Chapter 8 to review the descrip- 
tions of numbers, formulas, and text. 

Related functions are listed under the heading "See Also." 



311 



Multiplan 

ABS(N) 

Description 

Returns the absolute value of the argument N. 

Examples 

"Difference:"&DOLLAR(ABS(first-second)) 

ABS(AVERAGE(R1C1:10)-R1C1) 

Yields how far the first item is from the average. 

See Also 

SIGN for the sign of a number; ABS is equivalent to 
number* SI GN( number ). 

MAX for the maximum of two or more values. 

MIN for the minimum of two or more values. 



312 



Function Directory 

AND(List) 

Description 

Returns the logical value true if all of the specified argument 
values are true. Otherwise, returns false. 

Requirements 

The argument entries must be logical values. If not, the 
# VALUE! error value is returned. 

Example 

IF(AND(SUM(Homework)>82,Final>50)),credit I "not qualified") 

See Also 

OR and NOT to operate on logical values. 
IF to test a logical value. 



313 



Multiplan 

ATAN(N) 

Description 



Calculates the Arctangent (inverse Tangent) function of the 
argument, yielding an angle in radians in the range (— tt/2 to 
+ 77/2). ATAN can be used to calculate Arcsin and Arccos (see 
Appendix 3, Table 1). 



Example 

ATAN(thetarow C) 



See Also 

TAN for the Tangent function. 



314 



Function Directory 

AVERAGE(List) 

Description 

Calculates the average of the specified argument values. 
Yields the same result as entering the formula 

SUM(list)/COUNT(list). 

Examples 

AVERAGE( Balance) 
AVERAGE(1 ,5,6.5,5) 

See Also 

STDEVior the standard deviation of the number values. 
SUM for the sum of number values. 
COUNT for a count of number values. 



315 



Multiplan 

COLUMN( ) 

Description 

Returns the number of the column in which the formula 
containing this function appears. 

Example 

1981+COLUMN0-4 

can produce the sequence of years 1981, 1982 ,...., starting in 
column 4. ( Place this formula in column 4, then Copy Right from 
column 4 as many cells as the number of years you want in the 
series. ) 



316 



Function Directory 

COS(N) 

Description 

Calculates the Cosine of the argument, an angle in radians. 

Example 

COS(thetarow C) 

See Also 

SIN and TAN for the other trigonometric functions. 



317 



Multiplan 

COUNT(List) 

Description 

Returns the count of number values represented by the List. 
Cells are counted only if they contain number values. 

Example 

DOLLAR(COUNT(checks)*0.15+1.00)&" is service charge" 

See Also 

AVERAGE for the average value. 
SUM for the sum of the number values. 



318 



Function Directory 



DOLLAR(N) 



Description 

Converts the argument to text showing a dollar amount, 
just like the "$" format code under the Format Cells command 
in Chapter 9. 

The argument is rounded to two decimal places. If the 
argument is less than 1, a zero appears in the units position. 
A dollar sign is added before the leftmost digit. If the 
argument is less than zero, the result is enclosed in paren- 
theses (the standard way of showing a negative balance in 
bookkeeping). 



Examples 

DOLLAR(2.715) 
DOLLAR(.15) 
DOLLAR(O) 
DOLLAR(-l) 



produces $2.72 
produces $0.15 
produces $0.00 
produces ($1.00) 



See Also 

FIXED to format a number without the dollar sign. 
VALUE to change text back to a number. 



319 



Multiplan 

EXP(N) 

Description 



Calculates e (2.7182818..., the base of the natural logarithm) 
to the power of the argument. This is the inverse function of 

LN. 

Powers of other bases are calculated using the exponentiation 
operator ( ). 



Examples 

, "e'is"&FIXED(EXP(1),14) 

"SINH ="&FIXED((EXP(theta)-EXP(-theta))/2,8) 

See Also 

LN for the natural logarithm of a number. 



320 



Function Directory 

FALSE() 

Description 

Returns the logical value false. 

Example 

If you are planning on putting a complicated condition into 
a cell, you can use FALSE() to put a logical value in for 
testing before you construct the more complicated expression. 

See Also 

AND, OR, and NOT to operate on logical values. 
IF to test a logical value. 



321 



Multiplan 

FIXED(N,Digits) 

Description 

Converts the specified value to text showing a fixed-decimal 
number with the number of decimal digits specified, just 
like the "Fix" format code under the Format Cells command 
in Chapter 9. 

If the value is negative, a minus sign is placed before the 
leftmost digit. If digits is negative, rounding is done to the 
left of the decimal point. 

Requirements 

Digits must be an integer between and 30. 

Example 

FIXED((first/second)*100,2)&"percent" 

See Also 

DOLLAR to format money amounts. 
VALUE to convert text back to a number. 
ROUND to return the number value of rounding. 



322 



Function Directory 

IF(Logical,Then Value,Else Value) 

Description 



If the Logical is true, returns the Then value. Otherwise, returns 
the Else value. These values may be numeric, text, or logical 
values. 



Example 

IF(grade>80,"excellent",grade) 

See Also 

AND, OR, and NOT to operate on logical values. 
ISNA and ISERROR to check for error values. 



323 



Multiplan 

INDEX(Area,Subscripts) 

Description 

Returns the value of a cell selected by Subscripts from the 
rectangular area. 

One or two subscripts may be given. With one subscript, the 
area must be part of one row or one column. Subscript value 1 
selects the first cell in the row or column, value 2 the second 
cell, and so on. 

If two subscripts ( separated by commas ) are given, the area may 
be rectangular. The subscripts select the row and column in the 
area, starting at 1 in each case. 

If any index exceeds the limits of the area, the #N/A (not 
available) error value is returned. 

Examples 

To repeat the first column in the first row, copy the formula 

INDEX(C1,COLUMN()) 

throughout the first row. 

If the area Score is a table giving adjusted composite scores for 
raw scores on two components in a test, then: 

INDEX(Score,Raw1 C,Raw2 C) 

will give the appropriate composite score, based on the two raw 
scores. 



324 



Function Directory 

INT(N) 

Description 

Returns the largest integer less than or equal to N. 

Examples 

"fraction="&FIXED(number-INT(number),4) 
INT(6)is6 
INT(8.9)is8 
INT(- 123.999) is -124 

See Also 

ROUND to round a number to a certain decimal place. 



325 



Multiplan 

ISERROR(Value) 

Description 

Returns the logical value true if the argument is any of the er- 
ror values (#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, 
#NAME?, #NULL!). Otherwise, returns false. 

Example 

IF(ISERROR(ratio), "check your numbers","") 

See Also 

IF to test a logical value. 



326 



Function Directory 

ISNA(Value) 

Description 

Returns the logical value true if the argument is #N/A (not 
available). Otherwise, returns false. 

Example 

IF(ISNA(balance),"0",balance) 

See Also 

NA to produce #N/A value. 
IF to test a logical value. 
ISERROR to test for all error values. 



327 



Multiplan 

LEN(T) 

Description 

Returns the number of characters in the text value. 

Example 

MID(T,LEN(T),1 ) is the last character of the text T. 

See Also 

MID to return specified characters from a text value. 



328 



Function Directory 

LN(N) 

Description 

Calculates the natural logarithm of the argument. 

Requirements 

Afmust be positive. A #NUM! error value is returned if iVis less 
than or equal to zero. 

Example 

"log2="&FIXED(LN(value)/LN(2),8) 

See Also 

ABS to ensure that the argument is positive. 

EXP for the inverse of LN. 

LOG10 for logarithms to the base 10. 



329 



Multiplan 

LOGIO(N) 

Description 

Calculates the base 10 logarithm of the argument. 

Requirements 

N must be positive. A #NUM! error value is returned if N is 
negative. 

Example 

"Order of Magnitude: "&FIXED(LOG10(value),0) 

See Also 

ABS to ensure that the argument is positive. 
LN for logarithms to the base e, and other bases. 



330 



Function Directory 

LOOKUP(N,Table) 

Description 

Searches for N in the first row or column of Table. Returns the 
contents of a cell from the last row or column of Table. Table is a 
group of cells on the worksheet. 

The dimensions of Table determine the direction of the search. 

If Table is square, or higher than it is wide, Multiplan searches in 
the first column of Table until it finds the cell that has the largest 
value that is less than or equal to N. The value in the last cell in 
that row of Table is returned as the result of the function. If the 
values in all cells in the first column are less than N, the last row 
of Table is used. If the values in all cells in the first column are 
greater than N, a #N/A value is returned. 

If Table is wider than it is high (has more columns than it has 
rows ), then Multiplan searches for Nm the first row of Table. The 
value in the last cell in that column of Table is returned as the 
result of the function. If the values in all cells in the first row are 
less than N, the last column of Table is used. If the values in all 
cells in the first row are greater than N, a #N/A value is returned. 

Requirements 

Table should be a cell reference to a rectangular area in the active 
worksheet. The result returned may be either a number value, a 
text value, or a logical value. 



331 



Multiplan 



Example 



Assume that column 1 ( Cl ) lists base salaries, column 2 ( C2 ) lists 
minimum tax, and column 3 (C3) lists marginal tax rates as 
percents: 

C1 C2 C3 









0% 


2300 





14% 


3400 


154 


16% 


4400 


314 


18% 


6500 


692 


19% 


8500 


1072 


21% 



Also assume that a name Salary has been defined and that it 
contains a value N. 

The tax on a salary in one of the brackets in Table can be 
expressed as: 

LOOKUP(Salary,C1 :C2)+(Salary-LOOKUP(Salary,C1 )) 
*LOOKUP(Salary,C1:C3) 

Notice that in the first lookup, we find the tax on the "base" 
amount (using Cl to find a value in C2). In the second 
lookup, we find the actual base amount (using Cl to find a 
value in itself; in fact, Table can be one column wide or one 
row high). And in the third lookup, we find the marginal tax 
rate for the amount of the salary that exceeds the base amount 
(using Cl to find a value in C3). 



332 



Function Directory 

MAX(List) 

Description 

Returns the largest number value from List. Returns zero if List 
represents no number values. 

Example 

"Bestof"&FIXED(COUNT(scores),0)& 
"is"&FIXED(MAX(scores),2) 

See Also 

MIN for the minimum of two or more values. 



333 



Multiplan 

MID(T,Start,Count) 

Description 

Returns specified characters from T. 

Start specifies the position of the first character of Tto be taken, 
counted from the left end of T. The first character is position 1. 

Count specifies the number of characters to be taken. 

If Count is zero, or if start is greater than the length of the result 
of T, no characters are returned. 

If Count is negative, a # VALUE! error value is returned. 

Requirements 

Start and Count must be TVvalues. If either Start or Count has a 
fraction, the fraction part is truncated before the integer part is 
used. 

Example 

MID("FFFFFFDCBAA",INT(grade/10),1) 

See Also 

LEN for the length of the text value. 



334 



Function Directory 

MIN(List) 

Description 

Returns the smallest number value from List. 



Example 



'Lowest of"&FIXED(COUNT(times),0)& 
"is"&FIXED(MIN(times),0) 



See Also 

MAX for the maximum of two or more values. 



335 



Multiplan 

MOD( Dividend,Divisor ) 

Description 

Returns the remainder of Dividend divided by Divisor. The 
result has the same sign as Divisor. 

Requirements 

Both parts of the argument must be an N value. If Divisor is 
zero, a #DIV/0! error value is returned. 



Examples 



MOD(3,2) = 1 
MOD(-3,2) = -1 
MOD(-3,-2) = -1 
MOD(3,-2) = -1 

In general: MOD(x,y)=x-INT(x/y)*y 



336 



Function Directory 

NA() 

Description 

Returns the #N/A (not available) special value. This value may- 
be used to mark data points that are yet to be defined. 

Example 

By assigning NA( ) to the interest rate, all values on the worksheet 
that depend on the interest rate will change to #N/A. 



337 



Multiplan 

NOT(Logical) 

Description 

Returns the opposite of the logical value argument (false if the 
argument is true; true if the argument is false). 

Example 

IF(OR(credit>limit,NOT(AND(conditions))), 
"not qualified","") 

where "conditions" is a group of cells and each cell contains one 
necessary condition of credit worthiness. 

See Also 

AND and OR to operate on logical values. 
IF to test a logical value. 



338 



Function Directory 

NPV(Rate,List) 

Description 

Net Present Value (NPV) calculates the amount of money re- 
quired now to produce a specified cash flow in the future, given 
some interest rate. 

The formula used is: 

n 
\ \ Hstj 



t—J (l+rate)* 
i=l 



Requirements 



Rate is an interest rate, expressed as a decimal fraction (0.11 is 
a rate of 11%). It must be an N value. 

The first value represented by List is income required at the end 
of the first period, the second the income required at the end of 
the next period, and so on. 



Example 



You are given the opportunity to lease a parking lot for five years 
for an $80,000 one time payment. The lot currently generates 
$15,000 net operating income annually. Based on research and 
profit studies you have done, you expect the income to increase 
30% annually. 

Place $15,000 in cell R1C1. Place R[-1]C*1.3 in cell R1C2 and 
copy it right to the next three cells. Name the area Flow. Now, 
you can figure the net present value of the cash flow. 

If your opportunity rate is 15%, then NPV(15%,Flow) gives you 
the present value of $84,598.24. Since this is greater than the 
cost of the lease, you conclude that it is a worthwhile investment. 



339 



Multiplan 

OR(List) 

Description 



Returns the logical value true if any value in List is true. 
Otherwise, returns false. 



Requirements 



The argument entries must be logical values. If not, the # VALUE! 
error value is returned. 



Example 

IF(OR(grade>80,final>=150),"good work","") 

See Also 

AND and NOT to operate on logical values. 
IF to test a logical value. 



340 



Function Directory 

PK) 

Description 

Returns the value 3.1415926535898, an approximation of the 
mathematical constant tt. 

Example 

SIN(PI()/4) 



341 



Multiplan 

REPT(T,Count) 

Description 

Returns a text value consisting of Count repetitions of T. If 
Count is zero or negative, # VALUE! is returned. Otherwise, 
the length of the result will be the length of T multiplied by 
Count. 

This function may be used to create bar graphs, or repeating 
patterns ( such as printer's rules ) to separate areas of the work- 
sheet. 

Requirements 

T is usually a single character, but it may be any number of 
characters. 

Count must be an AT value, which will be truncated to an integer. 

Example 

REPT("+",Score/3) 



342 



Function Directory 

ROUND(N,Digits) 

Description 

Returns a value, rounded to the number of decimal places 
specified by Digits. 

Digits specifies the rounding as follows : 

If Digits is greater than zero, then the result will be rounded 
to that many decimal places. For example, ROUND( 3. 1416,3) 
produces 3.142. 

If Digits is zero, the result is rounded to an integer. 

If Digits is negative, rounding is carried into the inte- 
ger. For example, ROUND(21,— 1) produces 20 while 
ROUND(991,-2) produces 1000. 

Requirements 

Digits must be an N value. 

Example 

Balance+ROUND(Balance*lnterest/12,2) 

See Also 

INT to return the integer part of a number. 



343 



Multiplan 

ROW() 

Description 



Returns the number of the row in which the formula containing 
this function appears. 



Example 



Copying the expression ROW( )*10 throughout the first column 
creates the sequence of numbers: 

10 
20 
30 



See Also 

COLUMN for the current column number. 



344 



Function Directory 

SIGN(N) 

Description 

Returns a number representing the algebraic sign of the argu- 
ment. 

If the sign of the argument is positive, the function returns 1. 

If the argument value is zero, the function returns 0. 

If the sign of the argument is negative, the function returns — 1. 

Example 

To display the magnitude of a number in bar chart form and its 
sign: 

REPT(MID('- +',SIGN(num)+2,1),ABS(num)) 

See Also 

ABS to return the absolute value of a number. 



345 



Multiplan 

SIN(N) 

Description 

Calculates the sine of the argument, an angle in radians. 

Example 

SIN(thetarowC) 

See Also 

COS and TAN for the other trigonometric functions. 



346 



Function Directory 

SQRT(N) 

Description 

Returns the square root of the argument. 

Requirements 

N must be positive. If N is negative, a #NUM! error value is 
returned. 

Example 

SQRT(x*x+y*y) 



347 



Multiplan 

STDEV(List) 

Description 

Calculates the sample standard deviation of the number values 
represented by List according to the formula: 



s= 



t 



(2 X)2 

2x2 1 L_ 



n-1 
Example 

STDEV(grades) 

See Also 

AVERAGE for the average value. 



348 



Function Directory 

SUM(List) 

Description 

Returns sum of number values represented by List. 

Example 

(1 +rate)*SUM(deposits January) 

See Also 

MAX for the maximum of two or more values. 
MIN for the minimum of two or more values. 
AVERAGE for the average value. 
COUNT for the count of the number values. 



349 



Multiplan 

TAN(N) 

Description 

Calculates the tangent of the argument, an angle in radians. 

Example 

TAN(thetarow C) 

See Also 

COS and SIN for the other trigonometric functions. 
ATAN for the inverse tangent function. 



350 



Function Directory 

TRUE() 

Description 

Returns the logical value true. 

Example 

If you are planning on putting a complicated condition into a 
cell, you can use TRUE( ) to put a logical value in for testing 
before you construct the more complicated expression. 

See Also 

AND, OR, and NOT to operate on logical values. 
IF to test a logical value. 



351 



Multiplan 

VALUE(T) 

Description 

Returns the number in the argument, represented as text. The 
argument must be the text form of a number, similar to those 
produced by the formatting codes used by Multiplan. It may 
contain a leading dollar sign or a leading minus sign. It may be 
written in scientific notation. 

For example, all the following text forms yield the value 10: 10, 
$10.00, 1E1. The following text forms yield negative 10: -10, 
-1E1. 

Requirements 

If the contents of T do not describe a number— if they include 
letters, for instance, or two decimal points—a # VALUE! error 
value is returned. You can avoid this problem by first isolating 
numbers mixed with nonnumeric characters, as the example 
below shows. 

Example 

Suppose that the cell named date contains the text "6/14/83." 
Then, 

VALUE(MID(date,3,2)) 
returns the number 14. 



352 



Chapter 11 
Message Directory 



The following directory lists in alphabetical order all the possible 
messages that Multiplan may display, along with descriptions of 
possible causes and what actions you may take in response to 
them. 



Cannot copy into non-blank cell 

Cause. The destination area of an external Copy contains a 
nonblank cell. 

Action. Review the response to the external Copy command. 
Make sure that the destination area you specify is not used for 
any other purpose. If appropriate, blank the cells that are not 
blank. 

Cannot link those windows 

Cause. An attempt was made to link two windows that were 
not split from each other. Also occurs on unlinking, especially 
unlinking a Title split. 

Action. Refer to the Window Link command in Chapter 9. 

Cannot read file 

Cause. Confirms a negative response to the "Enter Y to retry 
access to filename" message. Also may appear when directory 
display is requested, but an unknown file is named. 

Action. No special action is necessary. See the "Files" section 
in Chapter 8 for more information. 



353 



Multiplan 



Cannot write file 

Cause. The file last named is available but cannot be written to 
disk; either because (1) the diskette is full, or (2) the diskette is 
write-protected. 

Action. First, save your work on a different diskette. Check the 
available space and write protection of the diskette that caused 
the error message. See the "Files" section in Chapter 8 and the 
section at the beginning of this volume entitled "Operating 
Information" for more information. 

Cell locked by external Copy 

Cause. Either an attempt was made to unlock a cell that is 
the destination of a linked external Copy, or an attempt was 
made to copy from an area of the worksheet that is the destination 
of a linked external Copy. 

Action. Such cells must not be changed, for any change would 
be erased the next time the sheets were loaded and the external 
copies executed. To regain access to the cell, exclude it from 
copying. Redefine the external Copy command accordingly. 

Cells to recalculate: number 

Cause. You entered a new value into the worksheet while Multi- 
plan was in automatic recalculation mode, or you pressed the 
RECALC key ( ! ) after entering a new value while Multiplan was 
not in automatic recalculation mode. This message appears only 
if there are more than 32 cells to be recalculated. 

Action. Simply watch the number count down to zero. The 
number tells you where Multiplan is in the recalculation. When 
the number reaches zero, you can continue your Multiplan 
session. 

Circular references unresolved 

Cause. Cells refer to each other in a chain so that the last refers 
back to the first. ( The simplest case is a cell containing a reference 
to itself — RC — but the chain may be many steps long. ) Multiplan 
has calculated all the cells of the chain once and found itself 
starting over. It stops calculating, leaving the cells in the circular 
chain in an undefined state. 

Action. Alter the logic of the sheet so that there is no circularity. 
Use the same methods described in the "Formulas" section of 
Chapter 8 for finding the source of error values. 



354 



Message Directory 

Command is too long 

Cause. The command, formula, or text on the command line is 
too long to be displayed there. 

Action. The command, formula, or text must be shortened. 

Confirm change: sheet name 

Cause. The name of an area, which is the source of a linked 
external Copy, has been changed on the supporting sheet. 
Copying will not take place. The system will wait for a character 
to be typed. 

Action. Type any character. The rest of the specified files, if 
any, will be loaded. Review the external Copy command in light 
of the change on the supporting sheet. Redefine the external 
Copy command as appropriate. 

Disk error 

Cause. While attempting to read or write a file, Multiplan 
was told of a serious error by the operating system. 

Action. See the "Files" section in Chapter 8 for possible prob- 
lems with reading or writing files. 

Disk full 

Cause. There is no more room on the diskette. 

Action. Use the Transfer Delete command to look at the file 
directory on the diskette, and delete unneeded files. As an alter- 
native, use a different diskette. 

Enter a filename 

Cause. The active field of the command takes the name of a file 
to be written. 

Action. Enter a filename, or press CANCEL to cancel the 
command. 



355 



Multiplan 



Enter a filename, or use direction keys to view directory 

Cause. The active field of the command takes a filename existing 
on a disk. 

Action. If you know the name of the file desired, enter it. If you 
want to examine the names of all saved sheets, use the direction 
keys as described under the Transfer Load command. Or, press 
CANCEL to cancel the command. 

Enter a formula 

Cause. Multiplan awaits a formula. The direction keys can be 
used to put a reference into the formula. 

Action. Enter a formula, a number, or text (enclosed in quotes), 
or press CANCEL to cancel the command. 

Enter a number 

Cause. The active field of the command takes a single number : 
a row or column number, or a quantity, such as margin spacing. 

Action. Enter a number or press CANCEL to cancel the com- 
mand. Note that it is possible to enter a formula, though it must 
result in a small integer. 

Enter a number, or d for default 

Cause. In the Format Width command, the width of a column 
can be set to a specific width in characters, or to the width set by 
the Format Default Width command. 

Action. Enter a number from 3 to 32, or the letter d, or press 
CANCEL to cancel the command. 

Enter name 

Cause. The active field of the command takes a name. See the 
Name command in Chapter 9 for the rules governing names. 

Action. Enter a name, or press CANCEL to cancel the command. 



356 



Message Directory 



Enter reference to cell or group of cells 

Cause. The active field of the command takes a reference of any 
kind, including a range, intersection, or a list (a union) of 
references. 

Action. Enter a reference to a cell (or cells), or press CANCEL to 
cancel the command. The direction keys may be used to enter 
references to particular cells. 

Enter sheet name 

Cause. In external Use command, prompts for the sheet name 
for which a substitution will be made. 

Action. Supply the sheet name, or press CANCEL to cancel the 
command. 

Enter text (no double quotes) 

Cause. The active field of the command takes text. Double 
quotes are not permitted because they are used to delimit text in 
formulas. 

Action. Enter text, or press CANCEL to cancel the command. 

Enter text or value 

Cause. You press a cursor movement key ( such as a direction 
key), following either the Alpha command or Value command or 
Edit command. 

Action. If you want to enter additional data, simply type what 
you want entered. Multiplan automatically selects the appro- 
priate command (Alpha or Value). If you want to return to the 
main command menu, press CANCEL. If you press RETURN 
instead of a cursor movement key following these three com- 
mands, Multiplan returns to the main command menu as soon 
as the command is carried out. 

Enter Y to confirm 

Cause. You have asked Multiplan to make a major change in 
the active sheet. Please carefully consider whether this action is 
correct. 

Action. If it is safe for the command to proceed, type a Y. If it 
is not safe, press any other character, and Multiplan will return 
to the main command menu without changing the worksheet. 



357 



Multiplan 

Enter Y to retry access to filename 

Cause. The file named is not accessible to Multiplan. 

Action. Enter N if the file is not appropriate. Make sure that 
the correct diskette is mounted in the correct drive. Change the 
"default drive" if necessary. See the "Files" section in Chapter 8 
and the section at the beginning of this volume entitled "Operating 
Information" for more information. Then try Y again. If you still 
get this message, N cancels the command and returns the main 
command menu and worksheet display. If Multiplan is asking 
for the system disk, entering N will terminate the session 
immediately. 

Error in formula 

Cause. See the rules for formulas in the "Formulas" section in 
Chapter 8. The highlighted area begins at the point an error was 
noted. 

Action. Check all punctuation, especially parentheses, quotes, 
and brackets. Check the spelling of function names. Check for a 
mismatch of data types, as in concatenating text to a number. 

Field has too many words 

Cause. The formula or text being edited has more numbers or 
words than Multiplan can handle for purposes of moving from 
word to word with the WORD LEFT and WORD RIGHT keys. 

Action. None needed; the formula or text is valid and may be 
used. However, the WORD LEFT and WORD RIGHT keys cannot 
be used while editing it. 

File format error: line number 

File being read is in the incorrect format. The file read stopped 
at the line number displayed. 

Action. Check the mode setting of the Transfer Options com- 
mand. Be sure that the mode setting is the same as the format 
of the file being read. 



358 



Message Directory 



File is not a saved worksheet 

Cause. The file you are trying to load or link to was not saved 
with the Transfer Save command. 

Action. Check the spelling of the filename. Make sure the 
"mode" of the transfer is correct if you are trying to load other 
than Normal format files. 

Help file not available 

Cause. The disk file containing the on-line reference information 
can't be found. 

Action. See the "Files" section in Chapter 8. 

Illegal option 

Cause. A menu is displayed, and a character is typed that does 
not appear as a starting letter of any of the menu options. 

Action. Check the menu for the option that you wish to select, 
and type the first letter of the menu item, or press CANCEL to 
cancel the command. 

Illegal parameter 

Cause. One field of the command last entered had a numeric 
response that was illegal. For instance, if the "number of cells" 
field of Copy Down was given the response 299, this message 
would appear when RETURN was pressed. There are only 255 
rows, so 299 copies could never be made. 

Action. The command had no effect, so reenter it correctly. 

Illegal width of column 

Cause. The column width you requested was out of range. 

Action. Reenter the command. Make sure you specify the width 
as a number between 3 and 32 inclusive. 



359 



Multiplan 



Insufficient memory 

Cause. Multiplan has run out of storage space; it has no space 
left for new cell contents. 

Action. Save the sheet at once. Then consider ways to simplify 
it. Blank cells take little space, so blank any unwanted cells. If 
you have large areas of blanks between areas in use, make the 
sheet more compact. The Delete commands remove cells from 
your sheet. Beyond that, you may have to break the application 
into additional sheets to fit in all the information. 

Locked cells may not be changed 

Cause. An attempt was made to modify the value of a locked 
cell. Note that the lock may have been set by external Copy. 

Action. If you need to change the cell, unlock it first, using the 
Lock Cells command. 

Name not defined: sheet name 

Cause. An external Copy was attempted from a named area 
that is not defined on the source sheet. 

Action. Check the source sheet for the correct name. Redefine 
the external link if necessary. 

Name too long 

Cause. Names may not exceed 31 characters. The name you 
have entered exceeds this. 

Action. Use a shorter name. 

Overwrite existing file? 

Cause. The disk file Multiplan is about to create— either a 
saved worksheet or a file of printer lines from the Print File 
command— has the same name as an existing file. If Multiplan 
continues, it will replace the existing file with the new one. 

Action. Think carefully! If you agree that the existing file is of 
no importance, reply Y to let the command proceed. If the file 
might be important, reply Nand re-enter the command giving a 
different, unique filename. 



360 



Message Directory 



Press any key to redraw screen 

Cause. The external List command has put an information 
display on the screen in place of the usual display. 

Action. When you have seen enough of the information display 
press any key to return to the normal display. 

Printer error 

Cause. The printer is not responding to a request from Multiplan. 

Action. Check if the printer is connected properly and ready 
to print. 

Reading line number 

Cause. You command Multiplan to read a symbolic file. 

Action. None. The line number inceases as Multiplan reads 
through the file. When the file has been read completely, you 
can continue your Multiplan session. 

Select option 

Cause. Multiplan is waiting for your choice among a short list 
of ootions. 



of options. 



Action. Selection in this case is similar to command selection. 
Move the edit cursor to the desired option using the space bar 
and BACKSPACE key (as necessary). Or type the initial letter of 
the option. 

Select option or type command letter 

Cause. Multiplan awaits your choice from a list of options. 

Action. Select one of the items shown by moving the edit 
cursor to it with the SPACE and BACKSPACE key, then pressing 
RETURN. Or, just type the initial letter of the item you want. 



361 



Multiplan 



Shapes of areas do not match 

Cause. The destination area of an external Copy command 
does not have the same "shape" (size) as the source area. 

Action. Specifying a single cell as the upper left corner of the 
destination will suppress the shape check. However, the mismatch 
suggests a review of the names on the supporting sheet and on 
the active sheet. 

Too many depending sheets 

Cause. Multiplan can keep track of at most eight dependent 
sheets. The message signals that there are more than eight depen- 
dent sheets. 

Action. No action is necessary, but you cannot rely on the 
accuracy of the external List command. See also the discussion 
of external Relationships in the "Files" section in Chapter 8. 

Too many windows 

Cause. There is a limit of eight windows and the Window Split 
command has been used in an attempt to open a ninth. 

Action. Review the existing windows; use the Window Close 
command to delete some of them. 

Window will not fit 

Cause. The window you are trying to Border or Split is too 
small. 

Action. Close an adjacent window to get more room on the 
screen, or rethink your screen layout. 



362 



Appendices 



1 Helpful Hints 365 

2 Glossary 369 

3 Notes for the VisiCalc™ User 377 

4 The SYLK ( Symbolic Link ) File Format 387 

5 Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration 
Option 395 



363 



Appendix 1 
Helpful Hints 



This appendix offers hints for saving space in memory and on 
your diskettes, for saving time during your Multiplan sessions, 
and for making Multiplan easier to use. 

1 . Use the external commands to split sheets at logical places. 
The method of splitting up your work should follow the 
natural breaks in your tasks. By splitting up your task into 
smaller tasks, you can keep your worksheets smaller and 
faster to work with. 

2. Keep the worksheet compact. Keep the amount of blank 
space within the worksheet to a minimum. Also, avoid 
extending the worksheet size unnecessarily. 

Placing any number outside the general work area, even 
formatting a cell unintentionally, can use more memory 
and diskette storage than necessary. 

If you suspect that too much memory is being used (check 
the % Free indicator at the bottom of the screen), try 
deleting all columns to the right and all rows below your 
work area on the sheet. This ensures the minimum size for 
your worksheet. 

3. Place common subexpressions in an intermediate cell, then 
refer to that cell when the subexpression is needed in a 
formula in another cell. This saves retyping and recomputing 
the same information. For example, if SUM( Sales) appears 
in several formulas: 

MIN(1000,SUM(Sales)) 

SUM(Sales)*commission% 

AVE RAG E( Sales) (this example has it hidden) 



365 



Multiplan 



it is more efficient to compute SUM( Sales) once in a cell, 
then refer to that cell from the formulas. Having the 
intermediate result visible also helps with tracing problems 
in the setup of the formulas. 

4. Define names for the common areas on your worksheet. By 
defining names, you speed up references to a group of cells. 
For example, it is much easier and faster to type Sales than 
R2C3:15, or Hotspots than R3C4,R5C6,R5C8. Use the 
REFERENCE key (@) to enter names directly from the 
name table. 

5. Use the Copy commands for filling in cells with identical 
values, especially formulas, but also numbers and text. 
Copying is simpler, less error prone, and more space efficient 
than manually entering repeated values into cells indi- 
vidually. 

6. To copy quickly the format of a group of cells into another 
part of the worksheet, first copy the group of cells as they 
are. Then, blank the cells in the new area. 

7. Use primitive forms of references wherever possible. For 
example, it is more efficient to use R2C2 than R2 C2; or 
Rl:2ClthanRlCl:R2Cl. 

8. Turn off automatic recalculation, and use the RECALC key 
(!). This way you can enter new values and edit current 
values without waiting for each recalculation. Recalculation 
also occurs when you change text. 

9. Use "Continuous" cell format code sparingly, Formatting 
whole rows with "Continuous" format or specifying "Con- 
tinuous" as the default setting is expensive. 

10. Format entire rows or columns at one time, except for 
"Continuous" format. Formatting entire rows or columns 
does not extend your worksheet. 



366 



Helpful Hints 



11. Avoid functions or operations over unnecessarily large 
ranges. For example, instead of SUM(R2), specify only the 
range of columns that contain values, for instance SUM 
( R2C1 : 5 ). Or, try to restructure the function or operation so 
that large ranges are not necessary. 

12. Avoid extensive use of forward references because they are 
slower to recalculate. For example, a reference to cell R10C10 
from cell R5C5 is slower than a reference to R5C5 from 
R10C10. 

13. Use the PAGE, HOME, and END keys to scroll rapidly across 
and down the worksheet. 

14. Perform similar operations together. Try to define all names 
at once. Copy all cells at once. Many Multiplan commands 
offer you proposed responses. By performing similar oper- 
ations together, you can make maximum use of the proposed 
responses, which saves considerable time. 

1 5 . Simply press the RETURN key to select the Alpha command 
whenever the main command menu is displayed. 

16. Position the cell pointer before selecting a command. This 
also makes it easier to use proposed responses. 

17. Use the Normal mode for saving and loading files, whenever 
possible (see Transfer Options command). If you load a file 
that is in Symbolic or Other mode, save it in Normal mode 
when you are finished with it. Files in Normal mode load 
much faster than files in the other modes. 



367 



Appendix 2 
Glossary 

Absolute reference 

A reference to a cell that uses specific row and column numbers; 
for instance, R17C12. Opposed to relative reference, as R[ + l] 
C[-2]. 

Action keys 

Keys that cause Multiplan to carry out an action at once. The 
action keys include the CANCEL key, NEXT WINDOW key, and 
RETURN key. See also Direction keys, Edit keys. 



Active 



Something in use right now and immediately accessible, such as 
the active window, active cell, or active field of a command. 

Active cell 

The cell indicated by the cell pointer. The contents of the active 
window can be seen on the status line and may be edited with the 
Edit command. 

Active window 

The window containing the active cell, marked on the screen by a 
highlighted window number. 



Alignment 



The rule for the horizontal positioning of the display of a cell's 
value. Values may be left justified or right justified or centered. 



CANCEL key 



Action key that causes Multiplan to abandon the current com- 
mand and return to command choice. 



369 



Multiplan 
Cell 



One position on the worksheet, a place where data or a formula 
may be stored. A cell has a location and may be referred to by one 
or more names. The contents of a cell determine its value; the 
cell's format determines how its value is displayed. 



Cell pointer 



A highlighted pointer that selects one cell from all the cells in the 
worksheet. That cell becomes the active cell. The cell pointer is 
moved from cell to cell with the direction keys, or directly with 
the Goto command. 



Character 



A symbol that can be displayed on the screen; includes letters, 
digits, punctuation, and special characters like $, + , and %. 



Column 



A vertical line of cells down the worksheet. There are 63 columns, 
designated by the numbers 1 through 63. 



Command 



An instruction to Multiplan to do something. A command may 
have one or more fields in which to specify how the command 
should be carried out. 

Command line 

The screen lines just under the worksheet area, beginning with 
the word COMMAND:, and showing the main command menu. 
Here is where commands are built. 

Contents (of a cell) 

That which has been put into a cell. If nothing has been put in, 
the cell is empty and its contents are blank. Otherwise the cell 
contains either data (text or a number) or a formula. If a cell 
contains a formula, the cell's value, which is the result of the 
formula, is usually displayed. 

Cursor 

See Edit cursor. 



370 



Glossary 



Dependent sheet 

A sheet that uses values from another sheet. The dependent 
sheet depends on information calculated on another, saved, sheet 
to which it is linked by the external Copy command. See also 
Link. 

Direction keys 

Keys that move the cell pointer. The UP, DOWN, LEFT, and RIGHT 
keys move the pointer one cell at a time. The HOME key moves it 
to the cell in the upper left corner of the active window. 

Directory 

The table of file names kept on each diskette by the operating 
system. The directory lists each file on the diskette. 



Edit 



Altering a response in a field of a command. The edit keys are 
used to move the edit cursor over the response, and the character 
keys are used to replace or insert characters. 



Edit cursor 



The highlighted part of a command on the command line, which 
may be as small as one character or as large as an entire field. The 
edit cursor is moved with edit keys. It shows where alterations 
can be made to the command. 



Edit keys 



Keys that move the edit cursor within the command line. Includes, 
for example, WORD RIGHT and WORD LEFT and CHARACTER 
RIGHT and CHARACTER LEFT keys. 



Field 



A portion of a command in which you type a response to instruct 
Multiplan in some detail of the command's work. When Multiplan 
first shows a field, it fills it with a proposed response; you can 
replace or edit that response if it isn't what you want. 



371 



Multiplan 



File 



A named unit of data stored on disk or diskette. When a worksheet 
is saved it is written into a file. Not all files represent saved 
worksheets, but those that are can be loaded or linked to other 
worksheets. 



Filename 



The name used to refer to a worksheet when it is saved, loaded, or 
linked to another sheet. 



Format 



How a cell's formula is displayed. The format controls numeric 
punctuation and the alignment of the displayed value. A format 
can be specified for a cell or cells with the Format Cells com- 
mand; cells without a specific format are displayed according to 
a default format set with the Format Default command. 



Formula 



A recipe for how a value is to be calculated. Whenever the 
contents of a cell are changed, Multiplan recalculates all the 
formulas on the worksheet (unless automatic recalculation is 
turned off). 



Function 



A built-in mathematical or statistical operation that Multiplan 
can perform on one or more values; e.g., SUM or AVERAGE. 



Group of cells 



A collection of one or more cells on the worksheet that may be 
named; e.g., Sales. 



Highlight 



An area on the display that appears emphasized. Highlights are 
used to indicate the edit cursor, active cell, active window number, 
and current menu item. 



372 



Glossary 



Link 



In Multiplan, the use of data from an inactive sheet in calculations 
on the active sheet. The inactive sheet is called the supporting 
sheet. The data to be copied must have been marked with the 
Name command or must be specified by an absolute reference. 
Then data from the supporting sheet may be used in formulas on 
the active sheet. Link is also used to express connection between 
windows for synchronized scrolling. 



Load 



To make a saved sheet active again. The sheet to be loaded must 
have been saved. The Transfer Load command is used to copy 
the saved sheet from its file to working storage, where it becomes 
the active sheet. 



Lock 



Protection of cells that contain formulas or text from inadvertent 
alteration. 



Menu 



A list of alternatives. A choice from a menu is selected in one of 
two ways: by moving through the list with the space bar (a 
highlight will move along the menu indicating the current 
selection) and selecting the highlighted choice with the RETURN 
key, or by typing the initial letter of the desired item. 

Message 

A notice posted by Multiplan on the message line to explain a 
problem or suggest what kind of input the system is waiting for. 

Message line 

The next to the last line on the display. 

Name (of a cell or group of cells) 

A tag, associated with a group of cells by the Name command. 
The name can be used to refer to the cell or cells in formulas. 



373 



Multiplan 



NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key 

Action key that moves the cell pointer to the next cell that is not 
blank and is not locked. Used to find cells that contain numbers 
(rather than a formula or text) so you can perform "what if" 
experiments. 

Proposed response 

Response supplied by Multiplan. It is usually based on the most 
recent responses by the user or on the current status of Multiplan. 



Range 



The smallest rectangle of cells containing two references. A 
range is designated by the colon ( : ). The range R3:R8 defines the 
rectangular area containing all of rows 3 and 8, namely rows 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7, and 8. See also Reference. 

Reference 

The designation of a cell or an area of cells. The simplest reference 
is to a single cell: R9C2. A reference may be relative to the cell 
containing the reference, as in R[— 1]C. A reference may be to a 
single cell, as the prior two, or to an area of cells: R6 refers to all 
of row 6. A reference may be composed of intersections of 
references, ranges of references, or unions of references. A 
reference my be a name defined to refer to one or more cells. See 
also Name and Range. 

Relative reference 

A reference to a cell relative to the cell containing the reference, 
as R[— 1]C meaning "the row above, in this column." Opposed to 
absolute reference, in which the actual column and row numbers 
are stated. 

Response 

What the user types in a field of command. May be a row or 
column number, a count, a name, or the contents to be put in a 
cell. When Multiplan displays a command on the command line, 
it usually supplies a proposed response in every field of the 
command; the user may replace the proposed response, edit it, or 
leave it as proposed. 



374 



Glossary 



Row 



A horizontal line of cells across the worksheet. There are 255 
possible rows, designated by the numbers 1 through 255. 



Save 



The operation of making a permanent copy of the active worksheet 
in a file. 



Scroll 



To move one or more windows across the worksheet one row or 
column at a time. Scrolling is done with the direction keys. For 
example, if the RIGHT DIRECTION key is pressed until the cell 
pointer reaches the right edge of the screen, and then pressed 
again, Multiplan scrolls the worksheet display one column to the 
left. 

Status line 

Bottom line of the screen, where Multiplan presents status 
information such as the location of the active cell and its contents. 

Supporting sheet 

A sheet providing values to another sheet. The sheet supports 
the other sheet (the dependent sheet) with data that has been 
designated with the external Copy command. Data on the 
supporting sheet must have been named with the Name command. 
See also Link. 



Text 



String of characters that may be used for titles in the worksheet. 
Multiplan formulas can perform operations on text also. 



Value 



The information content of a cell: its numeric value if it contains 
a number; its text if it contains text; or, if it contains a formula, 
the result of calculating that formula. 



375 



Multiplan 



Window 



A rectangular portion of the display area within which Multiplan 
displays a part of the worksheet. As many as eight windows may 
be open at once; they are opened or closed with the Window 
command. Each window has a window number from 1 through 8 
shown in its upper left corner. The window number of the active 
window is highlighted; that window contains the active cell, 
which is highlighted by the cell pointer. 



Worksheet 



A grid of cells displayed by Multiplan to store formulas and 
values. 



376 



Appendix 3 

Notes for the VisiCalc™ User 



If you have used VisiCalc previously, you are probably curious 
about how that product differs from Multiplan. This appendix 
compares the operations and features of the two. Described first 
are the operations the two programs have in common, roughly in 
the order they are presented on the VisiCalc reference card. The 
features unique to Multiplan are described second. 



The Multiplan Screen 



Multiplan divides the screen into a display area, command lines, 
a message line, and a status line. Parts of the worksheet are 
shown in the display area. Unlike VisiCalc, which allows you to 
create just two windows, Multiplan allows you to create as many 
as eight windows within the display area. You have control 
over the size and placement of each window, you can have 
windows with or without borders, and you can freeze title columns 
and rows. All these functions are controlled by the Window 
commands (see Chapter 9). 

The message line displays Multiplan 's comments on the progress 
of any command. The status line at the bottom of the screen 
displays the coordinates of the active cell, its actual contents, 
and the percent of storage that remains. 



Moving the Cell Pointer 



The four direction keys move the cell pointer around the active 
window. The HOME key sends the cell pointer to the upper left 
corner of the worksheet. The END key sends the cell pointer to 
the lower right corner. You may also move the cell pointer to a 
specific cell with the Goto command, which lets you move to a 

377 



Multiplan 



particular row and column or to a particular cell by name (see 
"Names" below). The NEXT WINDOW key moves the cell pointer 
to the next window in sequence. 



Correcting Errors, Canceling Commands 



In Multiplan the CANCEL key cancels any command you have 
begun. The BACKSPACE key erases the last character typed. 
There are several other editing keys used to correct typing errors 
(see Chapter 8). 



Entering Titles and Text 



In Multiplan, a cell may contain a title or simple text made of 
characters documenting a row or column on the worksheet. To 
enter text, choose the Alpha command, type the title, and press 
RETURN or any direction key. 

Unlike VisiCalc, Multiplan can use text in formulas. To include 
text as part of a formula, enter it in double quotes. You can use 
the titles on your worksheet in formulas (as references to parts of 
the worksheet) if the titles are also defined with the Name 
command. 



Entering Numbers 



A cell may contain a number. To enter one, just start typing it. 
Put the finished number in the active cell by pressing RETURN 
or any direction key. Numbers may be in decimal form or in sci- 
entific notation. 



378 



Notes for the VisiCalc User 



Entering Formulas 



A formula is composed of text, numbers, cell references, oper- 
ators ( H — * / ), and function names (SUM, MIN, etc.). Unlike 
VisiCalc, but like most programming languages, Multiplan 
evaluates formulas according to the precedence of operators: 
— (negative value) is evaluated first, then%, then exponentiation 
( ), then multiplication (*) and division (/), then addition ( + ) 
and subtraction ( — ), and finally text concatenation ( & ). You may 
use parentheses to change the order of calculation. 

Values can be compared using the operators less than (< ), greater 
than (>), less than or equal (<=), greater than or equal (>=), 
equal ( = ), and not equal (<>). 

The & (concatentate) and % (percent) operators are unique to 
Multiplan. 

To enter a formula, first type = or + , then the formula. With- 
in a formula, you may enter a reference to another cell by point- 
ing to that cell with the direction keys. All the editing keys 
are available to you while entering a formula; the WORD RIGHT 
and WORD LEFT keys are especially helpful. 



References 



Note that Rows and Columns are both numbered, the Row 
indication given first. Thus, the VisiCalc reference B3 can be 
written in Multiplan as R3C2. 

In a formula, you may refer to the value of a cell or a group of cells 
in any of several ways. You may give an absolute reference to a 
row and column ( R3C5 ) or to a range along a row or column ( R3 :6 
C9, R5, Cl:8). You may give a reference relative to the cell 
holding the formula (R[— 1] C for "this column, one row up"). 
Most important, you can give a name to any cell or group of cells. 
For instance, the name Sales might refer to R9C2:9 (row 9, 
columns 2 through 9). The formula SUM( Sales) produces the 
sum of all numbers in those cells. 



379 



Multiplan 



References of any of those three kinds may be combined by 
intersection or union to make other references (see Chapter 8 for 
details and examples). 



Multiplan Names 

In Multiplan, the Name command allows you to define a name as 
a reference to a single cell, or to any group of cells. Once you've 
done so, you may use that name as an argument of a function or, 
in many cases, as a response in a command. A name must start 
with a letter, and it may contain letters, numbers, periods ( . ), and 
underline (_) characters, up to 31 characters maximum. 

This naming ability can make a big difference in the clarity of 
your sheets. Consider this formula (as VisiCalc presents it): 

B1 * B2 *(1-B3) 

Notice the improvement if you write it using names: 

Quantity * Price * (1 - Discount) 

The Name command also allows you to review your name 
definitions using the direction keys. 



Functions 



Multiplan supports all of the functions familiar to you from 
VisiCalc, and others unique to Multiplan. Table 1 compares the 
Multiplan functions with their VisiCalc counterparts. See Chapter 
10 for details on each Multiplan function. Note that Multiplan 
function names do not begin with " @ ". 

Multiplan also provides several unique functions. See Table 2. 



380 



Notes for the VisiCalc User 



Table 1 

Multiplan Functions and Their VisiCalc Counterparts 



Multiplan 

ABS(iV) 

use PI()/2-ATAN(iV/SQRT(l-V*JV)) 

AND(list) 

use ATAN( JV/SQRT( 1 -N*N) ) 

ATAN(iV) 

AVERAGE! list) 

INDEX (area,subscripts) 

COS(N) 

COUNT(list) 

use undefined name 

EXP(N) 

FALSEO 

IF(l,vl,v2) 

INT(iV) 

ISERROR(iV) 

ISNA(iV) 

LN(V) 

LOGlO(JV) 

LOOKUP! N, area) 

MAX(list) 

MIN(list) 

NA() 

NOT(l) 

NPV(dr, list) 

OR(list) 

PK) 

SIN(AT) 

SQRT(iV) 

SUM(list) 

TAN(V) 

TRUE( ) 



VisiCalc 

@ABS(JV) 

@ACOS(N) 

@AND(list) 

@ASIN(V) 

@ATAN(JV) 

@AVERAGE( list) 

©CHOOSE 

@COS(iV) 

@COUNT(list) 

©ERROR 

@EXP(V) 

©FALSE 

@IF(l,vl,v2) 

@INT(JV) 

@ISERROR(A0 

@ISNA(AT) 

@LN(V) 

@LOG10(JV) 

@LOOKUP( Arrange) 

@MAX(list) 

@MIN(list) 

@NA 

@NOT(l) 

@NPV(dr,range) 

@OR(list) 

@PI 

@SIN(A0 

@SQRT(V) 

@SUM(list) 

@TAN(iV) 

©TRUE 



381 



Multiplan 



Table 2 

Functions Unique to Multiplan 



Function Description 

COLUMN( ) Current column number 

DOLLAR(iV) Text form of N formatted as dollar amount; negative N 

shown in parentheses 

FIXED(iV,d) Text form of N formatted with d decimal places 

LEN( T) Length of text T in characters 

MID(T,s,c) The c characters of text value T starting at s 

MOD( M , JV2 ) Remainder of N1/N2 

REPT( T,N) Text made of N repetitions text T 

ROUND(iV,d) Value of N rounded to d decimal places 

ROW( ) Current row number 

SIGN( TV) - 1, 0, or + 1 depending on N 

STDEV(List) Standard deviation 

VALUEf T) Number value of text T 



Commands 



Multiplan commands are chosen from the menu by highlighting 
a command word or by typing the first letter of a menu item. 
Table 3 shows the Multiplan commands and their VisiCalc 
counterparts (for complete details on the Multiplan commands 
see Chapter 9 ). Remember as you scan Table 3 that you type only 
the capitalized letters when choosing a Multiplan command. 

If a command has more than one argument "field," they are sep- 
arated by TAB instead of RETURN, as in VisiCalc. In Multi- 
plan, RETURN executes the command. 

It's worth noting that Multiplan's Insert, Delete, and Move 
commands can operate on more than one row or column at a time. 
You can Insert several blank rows, or Delete several rows. Move 
allows you to move any rectangular area; you aren't restricted to 
moving entire rows or columns. Multiplan adjusts all references 
(absolute or relative) and name definitions to account for the 
changes. 



382 



Notes for the VisiCalc User 



The Multiplan Format command can set the format of one cell, or 
of a group of cells. 

Multiplan automatically recalculates cells until all have reached 
the correct values (or until Multiplan finds an endless chain of 
references) so the VisiCalc "/GO" (order of calculation) command 
isn't needed. You don't have to be concerned with the order of 
calculation in Multiplan, or worry about forward references. 

Multiplan provides several unique commands which VisiCalc 
does not have. See Table 4. 

Table 3 

Multiplan Commands and Their VisiCalc Counterparts 

Multiplan VisiCalc 



Blank 


/B 


Transfer Clear 


/c 


Delete Columns, Delete Rows 


/D 


Edit, Alpha 


/E 


Format Cells 


/F 


Format Width 


/GC 


Format Default 


/GF 


not needed; see text 


/GO 


Option 


/GR 


Insert Columns, Insert Rows 


/I 


Move Columns, Move Rows 


/M 


Print 


/P 


Copy 


/R 


Transfer Load 


/SL 


Quit 


/SQ 


Transfer Save 


/ss 


Window Split Titles 


/T 


Option 


/v 


Window Open, Window Split, etc. 


/W 


Window Link 


/WS, /WU 


Goto Row-col 


> 


Next Window key 


; 


Recalc key 


1 


use references 


# 


see Table 2, REPT function 


1- 



NOTE: You type only the capitalized characters of the Multiplan command 
names. 



383 



Multiplan 



Table 4 

Commands Unique to Multiplan 



Format Options 

Help 

Lock 

Name 

Sort 

Window 

external 



Printing 



Multiplan has a full set of printing operations, invoked by the 
Print command. You may print all or any rectangular area of the 
worksheet; an area can be specified by name or specific references. 
Multiplan can send the printed representation of the worksheet 
to a file on disk. You may then use that file with operating system 
commands and other programs: you could, for instance, in- 
corporate a worksheet listing into another document. Multiplan 
also gives you the option to print the formulas in cells instead of 
their resulting values. 



Copying Cells 



Multiplan's Copy command performs the operations that, in 
VisiCalc, are done with "/R". Copy Down and Copy Right provide 
especially easy ways to duplicate one cell down a column or 
across a row. The general Copy From operation will duplicate a 
single cell into an area of any shape or duplicate an area of any 
shape in another area of the same shape. Multiplan doesn't ask 
whether references should be adjusted or not; if you build your 
formulas with relative references and names, they will be position- 
independent. 



384 



Notes for the VisiCalc User 



Worksheet Transfers 



The Transfer command handles operations on the whole work- 
sheet. 

The DIF™ format is not directly supported by Multiplan. 
However, DIF™ files can be readily converted into the Multiplan 
SYLK format described in Appendix 4. 

By the proper choice of Transfer Options ( see Transfer Options 
command in Chapter 9), Multiplan can load saved VisiCalc files 
directly. Simply select the Transfer Options command and set 
the "mode" to Other. Then use the Transfer Load command as 
you would for any Multiplan file. Just as in VisiCalc, the loaded 
sheet will be merged with the active sheet. This feature auto- 
matically compensates for the following differences: 

arithmetic operator precedence 

names of functions and the order of arguments 

format of cell references (all cell references are converted 
to relative references) 



Linking Sheets 



The Multiplan external Copy command may be used to copy 
data from a named area in a saved worksheet to the active sheet. 
The data sharing relationship between the sheets may be made 
permanent, in which case Multiplan will automatically copy the 
data from the "supporting" sheet every time the "dependent" 
sheet is loaded. You can find the details of this important 
Multiplan feature in Chapter 9. 



385 



Multiplan 

Sorting 



The Multiplan Sort command (described in Chapter 9) may be 
used to sort the worksheet on any column or columns containing 
numbers or text, in ascending or descending order. 



Lock 



The Multiplan Lock command can be used to lock individual 
cells or to lock all cells that contain formulas or text. This 
command makes it safe to test "What if...?" situations without 
disrupting or destroying your valuable worksheet structure. 



386 



Appendix 4 

The SYLK (Symbolic Link) 
File Format 



The purpose of the SYLK (SYmbolic LinK) file format is to 
exchange information between Multi-Tools and application 
programs. The format is designed with extensibility, ease of 
generation, ease of parsing; and storage efficiency in mind. The 
worksheet can be completely represented by SYLK files. This 
means that a program can generate a Multiplan worksheet, such 
as a program to build a cash-flow forecasting worksheet from a 
general ledger chart of accounts. It is useful to subdivide the 
definition of SYLK into the following "layers": 

1. SYLK record and field formats: this layer provides for the 
identification of the files, a degree of data compression, and 
an easy way for a program to separate information that is 
important for its purpose from information that the program 
is not interested in handling. 

2. The "C" or cell or data point record. This is probably the 
record type of the most universal interest. 

3. Other Multiplan-specific records and fields. This collection 
of formats affords complete control or complete overview 
for a communicating program of the state of a Multiplan 
session, including the worksheet, windows, options, etc. 

The first layer is defined as follows. The contents of a SYLK file 
—encoded in ASCII— are divided into records by either CR or 
LF characters. Empty records are ignored. Nonempty records 
are further subdivided into an RTD (record-type descriptor) 
optionally followed by a list of fields. Each field in the list is 
preceded by an FTD (field-type descriptor). The contents of the 



387 



Multiplan 



fields is determined by the RTD and the FTD, as described 
below: 

RTDs consist of up to two letters. They determine the 
meaning of the record according to the standards described 
below. 

FTDs consist of a semicolon and a single letter that 
determines the meaning of the field. The meanings of FTDs 
;U, ;V, ;W, ;X, ;Y, and ;Z will be the same for all records. 
The meanings of other FTDs will depend on the record 
type. 

The field contents can be arbitrary except for the following: 
CRs or LFs may not be included, and semicolons must be 
doubled. 

A degree of data compression is achieved by the following rule: 
for certain fields, the last field value will be automatically 
substituted if the field contents are empty. Such fields are said to 
be differentially encoded and will be marked by (diff) in their 
description. 

The FTDs ;X and ; Y determine x and y coordinates in a worksheet 
or other two-dimensional space containing data points. Coor- 
dinates of the first cell are 1,1. ;X and ;Y are differentially 
encoded, and they may be altogether omitted from records if the 
last defined value is to be used. 

In general, programs that process SYLK files cannot be expected 
to handle all RTDs, all FTDs, or even the full range of field 
contents for two reasons. First, their interest may be limited to 
some aspect of the available data. Second, SYLK may very well 
be expanded after the release of the program in question. This 
means that programs must be prepared to ignore records and 
fields that they do not understand. Data with coordinates that 
lie outside of the space that the program can process should also 
be ignored. 

The following sections describe data records and fields that are 
currently defined. 



388 



The SYLK File Format 



Record Type: C 

These records describe a data point that exists in a two-dimen- 
sional space with coordinates ;X and ;Y. The Multiplan concept 
of cell is one example of a data point. Besides its coordinates, 
data points may also possess a number or text value, an expres- 
sion, a protection state (locked or unlocked), and several Multi- 
plan-specific properties. Formatting properties for data points 
may be specified in a separate record type (F, see below). 

Fields are: 

;X, ;Y (diff ) cell coordinates. 

;K Value of the data point. Numerical 

values are given in decimal or exponential 
form (see Multiplan "Gen" format code). 
Text values are enclosed in double quotes. 
The logical values TRUE and FALSE 
are given this way. Error values are 
preceded by # and appear as in Multi- 
plan. 

;P Protection state. If ;P appears, the data 

is locked; otherwise, it is not locked. 

;E An expression that computes the value 

of the data point. The field contents 
appear exactly as a Multiplan formula. 

;R,;C (diff) Used by ;S. 

;S Expression for the data point is given at 

another coordinate. X is given by ;C 
(column), y is given by ;R (row). The 
field contents are decimal coordinates. 
Note that ;E must not appear together 
with ;S. Moreover, the data point at ( ;R, 
;C) must be marked with either ;D or 
;G. In the latter case, the value of the 
data point is taken to be the (constant) 
expression. 



389 



Multiplan 



;D 
;G 



;E expression is shared by some other 
data point. 

;K value is shared by some other data 
point. ;E must not appear. 



Record Type: B 

Defines the bounds of the two-dimensional space of data points. 
This record should appear at the beginning of a SYLK file. 



Record Type: E 

Defines the end of the SYLK file. 



Record Type: F 

Describes the Multiplan formatting properties of individual cells 
or of the whole worksheet. (See also the descriptions of the 
Format group of commands in Chapter 9.) 



Fields are: 



;X,;Y 
;Fclnc2 



;R, ;C 



(diff ) Cell coordinates. 

(diff) Cell formatting properties are de- 
fined by the contents where cl is a one- 
character formatting code (D, C, E, F, 
G, $, or * ), n is the "# of digits" argument, 
and c2 is a one-character alignment code 
(D, C, G, L, orR). 

;F properties are to be applied to a whole 
whole row or whole column of the Multi- 
plan worksheet. Contents are decimal 
row or column numbers, respectively. 



390 



The SYLK File Format 



;Dclnc2n3 "Default" format properties are defined 

as in ;F (except that the "D" codes may 
not be used). n3 is the "default" width 
of columns (see also the Format Default 
Width command, Chapter 9). 

;K, ;E Appear if the commas and formulas For- 

mat Options are set, respectively. 

;Wnl n2 n3 Defines the widths of a group of columns 

in the worksheet where nl is the first 
column (x), n2 is the last column in the 
group, and n3 is the width of the columns 
in the group expressed as number of 
characters (cf. Format Width command). 
Columns that are not mentioned in any 
format record will have the "default" 
width setting. 



Record Type: ID 

The first record in the SYLK file must be an ID record. This 
convention helps with the identification of the file as a SYLK file. 

Field is: 



;Pname 



The name of the program that pro- 
duced the file (for example, MP). 



Record Type: NN 

This record defines a Multiplan name as a union of rectangular 
areas expressed with absolute references (see also the Name 
command, Chapter 9). 



Fields are: 
;Nname 
;Ee 



The name to be defined. 

Expression describing the area. Its 
general form is: 

Rn1 1 :n1 2Cn1 3:n1 4,Rn21 :n22Cn23:n24, . . 



391 



Multiplan 



Ranges over single values may be written 
without the ":" operator. Ranges Rl :255 
or Cl:63 (but not both) may be omitted. 



Record Type: NE 



The record describes a link to an inactive sheet. See also the 
external group of commands in Chapter 9. 

Fields are: 

;F Filename ( or logical filename ) for source 

sheet. 

;S Description of the source area, typically 

a name of a group of cells. 

;E Expression defining target area, as in 

NN. 



Record Type: NU 

Describes an external filename substitution. See external Use 
command, Chapter 9. 

Fields are: 

;L Filename (or logical filename). 

;F Filename to be used instead of ;L. 

Record Type: W 

The window structure of a Multiplan screen is described in part 
by the states of the windows and in part by the operations that 
create the windows. To discover the correct description for a 
particular screen fenestration, the best approach is to use 
Multiplan to set up the windows and then to inspect SYLK 
output from Multiplan. 



392 



The SYLK File Format 



Fields are: 

;N 

;Ayx 
;B 



;STcy ex 

;SHlcy 

;SVLcx 



Window number, as shown by Multi- 
plan. 

Coordinates of the cell shown in the 
upper left corner of window ;N 

Window ;N is bordered if (and only if ) ;B 
appears. 

Split window ;N to create new window. 
The window number of the new window 
will be one greater than the largest num- 
ber previously in use. The letters T, H, 
or V define Title, Horizontal, or Vertical 
splits, respectively. The symbol 1 stands 
for the letter L if the windows are to be 
linked for scrolling, otherwise it is omit- 
ted. Cx is the number of character posi- 
tions in the new window, cy is the num- 
ber of screen lines, also in the new window. 



Order of Records 

There are only a few restrictions on the order of records in SYLK 
files. 

1. ID must be the first record. 

2. B should be used (although not required) for Multiplan 
input. 

3. For Multiplan C records: ;D or ;G must appear before 
another C record that refers to it (with ;S, ;R, ;C). 

4. Name definition should precede name use for efficiency, 
although this is not required. 

5. Window splits and window properties must be in strict 
logical order. 

6. NU records must precede NE records. 

7. E must be the last record. 



393 



Appendix 5 

Solving Extended Problems 
with the Iteration Option 



The Microsoft Multiplan electronic worksheet includes an option 
that extends the number of solvable problems. 

Consider this example. Spencer Ceramics must pay a bonus that 
is equal to 10% of its profits. The bonus is calculated then 
subtracted from the profits to yield the net profit. 

Set up this simple calculation in Multiplan as follows (the 
"Suggested Steps" column is just one way to enter data on the 
worksheet). 



Entries 

Move cell pointer to RlCl 
Enter Gross P in RlCl 
Enter Bonus in R2C1 
Enter Net P in R3C1 
Name R3C2 as Net_P 
Name R2C2 as Bonus 
Name R1C2 as Gross_P 
Enter 1000 in R1C2 
Enter Gross_P*10% in R2C2 
Enter Gross_P— Bonus 

Format column 2 to $ 



Suggested Steps 

Press the HOME key 
Press A, type Gross P, press DOWN 
Type Bonus, press DOWN 
Type Net P, press RETURN 
Press N, TAB, RIGHT, RETURN 
Press UP, N, TAB, RIGHT, RETURN 
Press UP, N, TAB, RIGHT, RETURN 
Press RIGHT, type 1000, press DOWN 
Type =Gross_P*10%, press DOWN 
Type =Gross_P— Bonus, press 

RETURN 
Press F, C, type C2 
Press TAB, TAB, $, RETURN 



At this point, your screen looks like: 



Gross P 


$1000.00 


Bonus 


$100.00 


NetP 


$900.00 



395 



Multiplan 



This bonus is calculated on the gross profits. But, the contract 
calls for the bonus to be calculated on the net profit instead of the 
gross. You may try to change the worksheet: 

Enter Net^P*10PJo in R2C2 Press UP, V 

Type Net-P*10°7o 
Press RETURN 

Multiplan displays the error message: 

Circular references unresolved 

The error message indicates a more complicated calculation that 
requires a different approach. The bonus calculation depends on 
the net profit. The net profit, in turn, depends on the size of the 
bonus, which must be subtracted from gross profit to get net 
profit; a seemingly endless circle. To solve the problem on paper, 
we would set up an equation and use algebra to find the bonus 
from the gross profit. Once the equation is set up f the bonus can 
be calculated manually or using any calculator. 

Instead of spending time setting up complex algebraic formulas, 
you can let Multiplan automatically solve this extended problem 
without algebra, as follows: 

Press (for Options) 

Make sure "Yes" is selected in the "recalc" field 

Press TAB twice to move to the "iteration" field 

Press Y( for "Yes") 

Press RETURN 

The numbers on the screen change in rapid succession until they 
become $90.91 for Bonus and $909.09 for Net P. These are the 
solutions. If you change the gross profit to $1100, Multiplan 
quickly recalculates the new bonus as $100 and the net profit as 
$1000. The "Circular references unresolved" error message does 
not reappear. 



396 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



What happened? Multiplan used iteration to calculate the solu- 
tion. To iterate means to repeat a calculation using the results of 
the previous calculation instead of an unknown quantity. Of 
course, previous results do not solve the problem exactly, but 
each iteration produces results that fit better. In the Spencer 
Ceramics example, the solution was produced as follows. 

Just before the first iteration, we had the initial values: 

Bonus $90.00 

Net P $900.00 

The calculations then progressed as follows: 

90 
900 900*. 1 = 90 

1000-90 = 910 910*. 1 = 91 

1000-91 = 909 909*. 1 = 90.9 

1000-90.9 = 909.1 

. . . and so on. 

When iteration causes values to become more precise, the process 
is called "convergence." Not all models converge. Some models 
converge only partially. Convergence may also depend on the 
initial values as well as on the model. Unless you specify otherwise, 
however, Multiplan stops iterating when the maximum change 
in all cell values on the worksheet is less than 0.001. This limit 
assures that the results are precise at least to the penny or 
percent without jeopardizing the chances for normal termination. 

If, for some reason, a model fails to converge within the limit, 
pressing the CANCEL key interrupts the recalculation at the 
end of the iteration that is in progress ( see the description of the 
Options command below). 

In the next section, you'll find descriptions of the Multiplan 
command and functions for controlling iteration: the Options 
command and the ITERCNT and DELTA functions. 



397 



Multiplan 



Following that, you'll find examples of some useful iterative 
worksheets; one for an Income Statement and Balance Sheet, 
one for calculating the Internal Rate of Return ( IRR), and one for 
finding roots of equations using the binary search technique. 

Finally, you'll find a summary of hints for creating iterative 
models. 

For more information on the mathematical theories of iterative 
methods, consult any handbook on numerical analysis. 



The Iteration Option and Supporting Functions 



Multiplan enters an iteration phase at the end of any normal 
worksheet recalculation if the following conditions exist: 

1. The worksheet contains at least one circular chain of refer- 
ences. 

2. The "iteration" field of the Options command is set "Yes." 

3. The completion test ( see below) is not TRUE at the end of 
the first recalculation. 

The Options command and two functions (DELTA and 
ITERCNT) support the iteration option. 



398 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 

Options 



OPTIONS recalc: Yes No mute: Yes No 

iteration: Yes No completion test at: 



Select option 



Description 



See the Options command in Chapter 9 for details of the "recalc" 
and "mute" fields. 

Select "Yes" in the "iteration" field if you want to calculate values 
from formulas that form a circle of references. Select "No" in the 
"recalc" field while making new entries to the worksheet. This 
saves time when entering or changing values. Also, selecting 
"No" in the "recalc" field instead of in the "iteration" field 
prevents Multiplan from displaying the "Circular references 
unresolved" error message. 

In the "completion test at" field, you enter an absolute or name 
reference to the cell that contains a completion test. A completion 
test is a formula in the cell that returns a logical value (TRUE or 
FALSE ). Multiplan tests the value of the cell after each iteration. 
If the value is TRUE, Multiplan stops iteration. If the value is 
FALSE, Multiplan continues iteration. See the DELTA and 
ITERCNT functions for more details about completion tests. 

Storing the test formula in a cell lets you store and display a 
complex test as a part of the worksheet. If you leave the 
"completion test at" field blank, Multiplan applies the formula 

DELTA( )<0.001 

as the convergence test (see the DELTA function below for 
details). 

Stepping through an iteration model one iteration at a time 
permits debugging and illustrating an iterative solution. To set 
this up, enter as a response in the "completion test at" field an 
absolute or name reference of a cell that contains the TRUE( ) 



399 



Multiplan 



function. This means that Multiplan calculates the model only 
once. And, repeatedly pressing the RECALC key produces a 
step-by-step solution. 

Pressing the CANCEL key stops iteration. Other keys are 
ignored during iteration. Multiplan checks for the CANCEL key 
at the beginning of each iteration. If you press the CANCEL key 
during an iteration, Multiplan completes that iteration, checks 
the completion test, and finally (if the completion test is not 
TRUE) stops iteration and displays the "Circular references 
unresolved" error message. 

The responses in the Options command "iteration" and "com- 
pletion test at" fields are saved with the worksheet in Normal 
mode (see the Transfer Options command in Chapter 9). When 
you load a worksheet that contains an iterating model, the 
fields of the Options command receive the responses saved with 
the worksheet. If you later start another sheet, you may want to 
reset "iteration" to "No" and delete the response in the "completion 
test at" field. 



Example 



To cause Multiplan to recalculate the worksheet using iteration 
and to place a completion or convergence test in R20C5, which 
you have named "Done": 

OPTIONS recalc:(Yes)No mute:Yes(No) 

iteration:(Yes)No completion test at: Done 

See "Creating Iteration Models" for actual models that include 
iteration. 



400 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 

DELTA() 

Description 

Returns the maximum absolute value of the changes in values 
from one iteration to the next. Returns #N/A if "No" is selected 
in the "iteration" field. Multiplan counts only the values in the 
cells that it evaluates between two successive DELTA functions. 
The DELTA function returns the #N/A error value when 
ITERCNT( )= 1 or when ISNA(ITERCNT( )) returns TRUE (that 
is, during the first calculation of a circular model) because no 
previous values exist from which to calculate changes. 

You can enter the DELTA function in a convergence test formula 
to calculate the results of an iteration to any desired precision. 
For example: 

DELTA()<0.000001 

returns TRUE when convergence results are less than 0.000001. 

Each time Multiplan encounters a DELTA function, it resets the 
internal DELTA value to 0. By entering more than one DELTA 
function, you can isolate the maximum change in a particular 
part of the worksheet. To create a DELTA( ) that only applies to 
the differences of a part of the worksheet, bracket the cells with 
cells that contain the DELTA function. Each DELTA( ) resets 
the DELTA value to 0. To avoid problems with order of evaluation, 
enter the first DELTA function in the cell immediately above the 
block of cells for which you want a local DELTA value. Then, 
enter the test DELTA formula in the cell immediately below the 
block of cells to return a local DELTA value. 



401 



Multiplan 



The following sketches illustrate these guidelines: 



first DELTA ( ) 



block 
of cells 



second 
DELTA ( ) 



Multiplan recalculates the block of cells column by column. This 
model provides local values of DELTA only if these columns 
contain no other circular references. The next sketch illustrates a 
better model design: 



first DELTA ( ) ■ 



cells in 
one column' 



second 
DELTA ( ) 



402 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



Note that subsequent evaluations of the second DELTA function 
normally include changes to the cell with the first DELTA 
function. The simple formula DELTA( ) is usually not sufficient 
to isolate local values of DELTA. Instead, enter a formula such 
as: 

IF(TRUE(),"",DELTA()) 

which clears the maximum DELTA value while appearing blank 
on the screen and presenting no value for the following DELTA 
to evaluate. 

Note that if you enter the DELTA function as a completion test 
and the ITERCNT function by itself in a model ( see the ITERCNT 
function), you may create divergence. The DELTA function also 
reads the cell that contains the ITERCNT function. Because 
ITERCNT changes by 1 during each iteration, DELTA will 
always return at least 1 unless you set up the worksheet model to 
return local values of DELTA or you eliminate the ITERCNT 
formula. Note that the formula ITERCNT()>20 returns TRUE 
or FALSE after each iteration and therefore would not affect 
convergence. 



Example 



Take the simple example of Spencer Ceramics given at the 
beginning of this appendix, but now calculate the results to the 
nearest dollar instead of to the nearest penny: 

1 . Enter DELTAf) <1 in R4C2. 

This gives a TRUE value when the difference between the 
previous and the current result is less than one dollar. 

2. Select the Options command and enter R4C2 in the "com- 
pletion test at" field. 



403 



Multiplan 



3. Now, enter 1000 in R1C2, the gross profit cell. 

The results that Multiplan returns are not the same as before, 
but are now within one dollar of the more accurate (to-the-penny) 
result; that is, Bonus is now $90.90 instead of $90.91 ($90.90 is 
the first result that had less than $1 change from the previous 
result— $91). (Refer to the series of calculations that iteration 
produced in the Spencer Ceramics example. ) 

See "Creating Iteration Models" for actual models that include 
the DELTA function. 



404 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 

ITERCNTO 

Description 

Returns the current iteration count, starting with 1 for the first 
iteration. During the first recalculation after each change to the 
worksheet, ITERCNT returns the #N/A error value. 

The ITERCNT function is especially helpful for providing initial 
values for iterative models, for creating a table of iteration 
results, and for providing a completion test. 

Initial Values 

Many worksheet models require an explicit initial value. Yet, 
during subsequent iterations, the model requires a formula. To 
arrange this, substitute a conditional formula (with the IF 
function) in place of the formula that requires an initial value. 

For example, as in the Spencer Ceramics example, to start with 
an initial value of Initial_Net_Profit, then switch to the for- 
mula Gross_Prof it— Bonus, enter the formula: 

IF( ISNA( ITERCNT( ) ),Initial_Net_Profit, 
Gross_Prof it— Bonus ) 

IF selects Initial_Net_Profit when the condition is TRUE; 
that is, when ITERCNT( ) returns the #N/A error value (which it 
does during the first recalculation after each change to the 
worksheet), the ISNA() function returns TRUE. After that, 
ITERCNT returns a number, making ISNA return FALSE; 
then, IF selects the formula Gross_Profit— Bonus. 



405 



Multiplan 



Table of Iteration Results 

You can create a table of partial results from an iteration by 
copying the formula: 

IF(ITERCNT( )=ROW( )-9,Net_Profit,RC) 

into successive rows starting at row 10. Note that each row 
receives the value of Net_Profit during a particular iteration 
and stays unchanged (RC) for all other iterations, before and 
after. 



Completion Test 

Enter a formula that includes ITERCNT to limit the number of 
iterations. For example, enter the formula: 

ITERCNT()>20 

Enter the absolute or name reference to the cell that contains this 
formula in the "completion test at" field of the Options command. 
During subsequent recalculations, Multiplan completes 20 iter- 
ations then stops. 



406 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 

Creating Iteration Models 



Iteration is a powerful problem-solving tool. To illustrate using 
iteration, we provide three examples. Before you begin to study 
the examples, you should be aware of the order of evaluation 
Multiplan follows during iteration. 

Unlike Multiplan worksheet models without iteration, models 
with iteration must take into account the order of evaluation of 
each cell. During iteration the current value of cells referred to in 
the formulas affects the iteration. Fortunately for the worksheet 
builder, the order of evaluation of cells participating in circular 
references is strictly defined when ITERCNT()>=1. Multiplan 
always calculates these cells one column at a time, top to bottom, 
starting with the first cell of the first column. 

A general guideline that helps avoid problems is to place all the 
circular references in a single column. Care must also be taken 
that the ordering is correct for iterative methods such as Newton's 
method (see Example 2) and binary search (see Example 3). In 
some situations, the order of evaluation determines whether the 
solution converges or diverges. If the original order of evaluation 
does not converge, reconsider the order to get convergence. 



407 



Multiplan 



Example 1 
Financial Gap Model 



Integrated Income Statement and Balance Sheet 

We based the discussion of this example on the following model. 
If you want to recreate the model, the formulas, text, and data 
appear following the discussion. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 sales 


$100.00 


$300.00 


$800.00 






2 costs 


$50.00 


$420.00 


$620.00 






3 profit 


$50.00 


($120.00) $180.00 






4 int income 




$3.89 


$23.21 






5 int expense 




$0.00 


$0.00 






6 net profit 


$50.00 


($116.11) $203.21 


delta 


0.000415 


7 beg ret earns 


$75.00 


$125.00 


$8.89 


itercnt 


13 


8 end ret earns 


$125.00 


$8.89 


$212.10 






9 cash 


$10.00 


$10.00 


$10.00 






1 funds surplus 


$155.00 


$38.89 


$232.10 


done 


TRUE 


1 1 total assets 


$165.00 


$48.89 


$242.10 


maxi 


50 


12 








maxd 


0.001 


13 liabilities 


$40.00 


$40.00 


$30.00 






14 funds deficit 


$0.00 


$0.00 


$0.00 






15 totliab 


$40.00 


$40.00 


$30.00 






16 totliab + re 


$165.00 


$48.89 


$242.10 






17 difference 


$0.00 


$0.00 


$0.00 






18 funds 




$38.89 


$232.10 







This model shows a common business application of iteration. 
Throughout, this model contains examples of one result depending 
on the result of another calculation in a circular pattern. That is 
the situation that iteration handles. 

Entries and calculations on a balance sheet must satisfy the 
condition: 



total 
assets 



total + retained 

liabilities earnings 



To achieve this balance, you vary the funds surplus and the 
funds deficit. This is an iterative process because varying the 
funds alters the interest, which affects the profit, which changes 
the retained earnings. This circle of calculation throws the sheet 
back out of balance. 



408 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



Funds surplus and funds deficit both refer to the value in the 
"funds" line (R18). Either funds surplus or funds deficit will 
always equal 0. If the value in the "funds" line (R18) is positive, 
you have funds surplus. If this value is negative, you have funds 
deficit. 

Notice the formulas (in the next section) for funds surplus and 
funds deficit. For funds surplus, the formula MAX(0,funds) 
returns the value of funds only if funds is positive; otherwise, it 
returns 0. For funds deficit, the formula — MIN(0,funds) returns 
the absolute value of funds when funds is negative. 

Notice also the formula IF(TRUE( ),"",DELTA( )) in R8C6. This 
formula keeps the ITERCNT( ) function in R7C6 from interfering 
with the DELTA( ) function in R6C6. 

The completion test is in R10C6. It checks both the DELTA 
value and the ITERCNT value. When one of the two returns 
TRUE (that is, either a maximum DELTA of 0.001 or an 
ITERCNT of 50), iteration stops. 

Columns 3 and 4 show two new time periods. Column 3 shows a 
large increase in capital outlay and an increase in sales that is not 
large enough to off set it. Thus, the profit line (R3) shows a loss. 
In column 4, however, sales have grown enough to offset the 
capital outlay. The profit line (R3) shows a profit. This is a 
typical situation in which the effect of a capital outlay on sales is 
delayed. You can apply these same formulas to analyze how 
much increase in sales you need to offset a particular capital 
outlay. 

This model can also help you analyze how much money you must 
borrow at any specific interest rate to receive as much usable 
funds as you need. 

See the listing of the formulas in the next section. 



409 



Multiplan 



Formulas for Integrated Income and Balance Sheet Model 

To show the formulas without breaking them across several 
lines, the worksheet appears in two parts, in a manner similar to 
the Multiplan method of printing. Columns 1 and 2 appear first, 
then columns 3 and 4, then columns 5 and 6. Note that the row 
numbers are the same for each part; that is, enter the six columns 
side-by-side. 

1 2 



1 


"sales" 


100 




2 


"costs" 


0.5*R[-1]C 




3 


"profit" 


R[-2]C-R[- 


-1]C 


4 


"int income" 






5 


"int expense" 






6 


"net profit" 


R[-3]C+R[- 


-2]C-R[-1]C 


7 


"beg ret earns" 


75 




8 


"end ret earns" 


R[-2]C+R[- 


-1]C 


9 


"cash" 


10 




10 


"funds surplus" 


155 




11 


"total assets" 


R[-2]C+R[- 


-1]G 


12 








13 


"liabilities" 


40 




14 


"funds deficit" 







15 


"tot liab" 


R[-2]C+R[- 


-1]C 


16 


"tot liab + re" 


R[-1]C+R[- 


-8]C 


17 


"difference" 


R[-6]C-R[- 


-1]C 


18 


"funds" 






19 









410 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



1 300 


800 


2 300+(0.4*R[-1]C) 


300+(0.4*R[-1]C) 


3 R[-2]C-R[-1]C 


R[-2]C-R[-1]C 


4 0.1*R[+6]C 


0.1*R[+6]C 


5 0.1*R[+9]C 


0.1*R[+9]C 


6 R[-3]C+R[-2]C-R[-" 


1]C R[-3]C+R[-2]C-R[-1]C 


7 R[+1]C[-1] 


R[+1]C[-1] 


8 R[-2]C+R[-1]C 


R[-2]C+R[-1]C 


9 10 


10 


10 MAX(0,R[+8]C) 


MAX(0,R[+8]C) 


11 R[-2]C+R[-1]C 


R[-2]C+R[-1]C 


12 




13 40 


30 


14 -MIN(0,R[+4]C) 


-MIN(0,R[+4]C) 


15 R[-2]C+R[-1]C 


R[-2]C+R[-1]C 


16 R[-1]C+R[-8]C 


R[-1]C+R[-8]C 


17 R[-6]C-R[-1]C 


R[-6]C-R[-1]C 


18 IF(ISNA(ITERCNT()),0, 


IF(ISNA(ITERCNT()),0, 


RC-diff) 


RC-diff) 


19 




5 
1 
2 


6 


3 




4 




5 




6 "delta" DELTA() 




7 "itercnt" ITERCNTO 




8 IF(TRUE()," 
9 
10 "done" OR(R[-4]C« 


",DELTA()) 


<R[+2]C,R[-3]OR[+1]C) 


11 "maxi" 50 




12 "maxd" 0.001 




13 




14 




15 




16 




17 




18 




19 





411 



Multiplan 



Example 2 
IRR Model 



Internal Rate of Return Calculation 

In Multiplan, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of a group of 
cash flows is the Rate for which 

NPV( Rate,Cash_Flow ) = 

The name Cash_Flow refers to the part of the worksheet that 
contains the cash flows. There may be many solutions to the IRR 
equation. The one found by this method will typically be the one 
closest to the initial estimate. 

The following set of formulas automatically searches for the 
correct Rate. You can include these formulas in any worksheet 
under the following conditions: 

1. Enter each of these formulas in a single row. 

2. When other parts of the model include iteration and the 
completion test refers to the IRR convergence, also include 
the method for returning local values of DELTA (see the 
DELTA function). 



412 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



Formulas for IRR Model 


1 
2 


i 
"IRR" 


IF(ISNA(ITERCNT()), 

R[+4]C, 

IF(ABS(RC)>R[+8]C, 

-(R[+4]C+ITERCNT()/100), 

IF(R[+2]C=0, 

RC+SIGN(R[+1]C*0.000001 

RC-R[+1]C/R[+2]C))) 


3 


"NPV" 


NPV(IRR,Cash_Flow) 


4 


"NPV" 


IF(IRR=0, 

(NPV(0.001,Cash_Flow) 
-R[-1]C)/0.0001, 
(NPV(IRR*1 .01 ,Cash_Flow) 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 




-R[-1]C)/IRR*0.01)) 


"EST. IRR" 


0.01 


"STATUS" 


DELTA()<0.01 


"LIMIT" 


500 


11 







"Cash Flow" 



1000 
300 



400 

300 

-200 

1000 

-1000 

2000 



For this model, the following names are defined: 

IRR = R2C2 

Cash_Flow = R3-.10C4 
The labels represent: 

IRR is the Internal Rate of Return. 

NPV is the Net Present Value. 

NPV is the first derivative of NPV (used for New- 

ton's method). 

EST. IRR is the initial IRR entered by you. An IRR 
close to 0, such as 1%, usually gives the first 
positive IRR, which is the one you seek. 

STATUS indicates when the calculation is done. 

LIMIT is the largest positive IRR to try before try- 

ing negative roots. 



413 



Multiplan 

These formulas yield the following results: 



1 


2 


3 


4 


1 






Cash Flow 


2 IRR 


27% 








3 NPV 


0.0 




-1000 


4 NPV 


-2226.3 




300 


5 






400 


6 EST. IRR 


1% 




300 


7 






-200 


8 STATUS 


TRUE 




1000 


9 






-1000 


10 LIMIT 


50000% 




2000 


11 









The following paragraphs explain briefly the mathematical basis 
of IRR calculation. 

Solving the equation 

NPV( IRR,Cash_Flow ) = 

for IRR employs the numerical method known as Newton's 
method. (This method was first published by Sir Isaac Newton 
in Principia ( 1686) as a solution for a cubic polynomial. ) Newton's 
method solves for an initial estimate that is close to a root of 
the equation then extrapolates along the tangent of this root 
to find its intersection with the x-axis as the next root to try. 
Iteration continues until either successive x values converge 
or the value of the function converges on 0. 

The tangent of a given equation f(x) is the first derivative f'(x). 
Therefore, Newton's method for successive approximations is: 

x (n+1) =x n -(f(x n )/f'(x n ) 



414 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 

Applying this equation to the solution of the IRR equation 
produces: 

( NPV( IRR n ,Cash_Flow )/NPV'( IRR n ,Cash_Flow ) ) 

Now, f'(x) becomes: 

f(x)=lim (f(x+delta(x))-f(x))/delta(x) 

delta(x)->0 

In our case, with a delta(x) of 0.01 of x, the equation becomes: 

NPV'(IRR n ,Cash_Flow)= 
(NPV(IRR n +(IRR n *0.01), 
Cash_Flow)-NPV(IRR n ))/(IRR n *0.01) 

This general method solves many equations that have more than 
one root, although you must realize that this method may 
converge to a root different from the expected root or may even 
diverge if the starting value is not close enough to the root. In the 
case of IRR, the first root found that is greater than zero is 
normally the correct answer. 



415 



Multiplan 



Example 3 

Binary Search Model 



Binary Search to Find Roots of Equations 

The IRR formulas in the last section readily adapt to finding the 
roots of arbitrary equations using the binary search technique. 

Assume that you have a polynomial 

x A 3+4*x*x+5 

Further suppose that you want to solve for a value of x that 
yields a result of 30. The following model solves for one root of 
the polynomial using the binary search technique. 

1 2 3 

1 "f(x)" "cJow" "c_high" 

2 x"3+4*x*x+5 IF(ISNA IF(ISNA 

(ITERCNTO), (ITERCNTO), 

low,IF(fx>res, high,IF(fx<res, 
RC,x)) RC,x)) 

3 

4 

5 "result" 

6 30 



4 5 6 

1 "x" "low" "high" 

2 (c_low+c_high)/2 100 

For this model, the following names are defined: 

c_low = R2C2 (current low value) 

c_high = R2C3 (current high value) 

x = R2C4 

low = R2C5 (low value entered by you) 

high = R2C6 (high value entered by you) 

fx = R2C1 

res = R6C1 (your desired result; you enter) 



416 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



The calculation proceeds as follows: 

1. In cell R2C2, Multiplan evaluates the IF function. During 
the first iteration, the ITERCNT function returns the #N/A 
error value, making the ISNA function return TRUE. Thus, 
IF selects the value of "low," which in this model is 0. 

2. For all other iterations, ITERCNT returns an integer, 
making ISNA return FALSE. Thus, IF selects the "Else" 
value, which is another conditional formula. 

3. The second IF formula in R2C2 compares the result of 
using the value of "x," (calculated in R2C4) in the polynomial 
f(x) in R2C1 with the desired result, 30, in R6C1. If the 
value of f(x) is more than 30, IF selects the current value of 
the cell (for the second iteration, 0). If the value of f(x) 
is less than 30, IF selects the value of "x" calculated in R2C4. 

4. The same steps apply to the conditional formula in R2C3, 
except this formula selects the "high" value during the first 
iteration. During subsequent iterations, IF selects the 
current value of the cell if f(x) is less than 30 or the value of 
"x" in R2C4 if f(x) is more than 30. 

Once Multiplan begins iteration, the calculations proceed rapidly, 
and it is difficult to see the numbers clearly before they change. 



417 



Multiplan 



The following list of values for each cell describes, in part, what 
happens as Multiplan iterates toward a result: 



1 



16 29.999762 2.0352602 2.035284 






100 





50 





25 





12.5 





6.25 





3.125 


1 .5625 


3.125 



50 





100 


25 





100 


12.5 





100 


6.25 





100 


3.125 





100 


1 .5625 





100 


2.34375 





100 


2.0352721 





100 



418 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



At this point, iteration stops because the maximum change in 
any value is less than 0.001, the internal DELTA value of 
Multiplan. The root Multiplan calculated is 2.0352721. (The 
changing values for f(x) in column one are left to you to find. ) 

For more precision, enter a DELTA formula in a cell that sets a 
limit smaller than 0.001. Or, enter an ITERCNT formula that 
sets a limit higher than 16. Then, enter either an absolute reference 
to that cell or the name of the cell in the "completion test at" field 
of the Options command. 



Summary of Hints for Creating Iteration Models 



1. Order of Evaluation 

Unlike Multiplan worksheet models without iteration, 
models with iteration must take into account the order of 
evaluation of each cell. During iteration the current value of 
cells referred to in the formulas affects the iteration. 
Fortunately for the worksheet builder, the order of eval- 
uation of circular references is strictly defined when 
ITERCNT( )>=1. Multiplan always calculates the circular 
references one column at a time, top to bottom, starting 
with the first cell of the first column. 

A general guideline that helps avoid problems is to place all 
the circular references in a single column. Care must also be 
taken that the ordering is correct for iterative methods 
such as Newton's method ( see Example 2 ) and binary search 
(see Example 3). 

For solving simultaneous equations, order is less critical 
because Multiplan assumes that each iteration converges 
on the solution. However, in some situations the order of 
evaluation determines whether the solution converges or 
diverges. If the original order produces divergence, rear- 
ranging the order may bring about convergence. 



419 



Multiplan 



2. Providing for Initial Values 

As discussed in the section on the ITERCNT function, you 
may enter a conditional formula to provide an initial value 
for formulas on the worksheet. For example, because 
ITERCNT( ) returns #N/A the first time it is called, a 
simple IF statement such as: 

IF(ISNA(ITERCNT( )), initial _value, formula) 

provides initial- value for the first calculation, then the 
formula in subsequent iterations. 

3. Obtaining Local Values of DELTA 

To obtain a DELTA( ) that applies only to the differences of 
a part of the worksheet, bracket the cells with cells that 
contain the DELTA function. Each DELTA() resets the 
DELTA value to 0. To avoid problems with order of evalua- 
tion, enter the first DELTA function in the cell immediately 
above the block of cells for which you want a local DELTA 
value. Enter a formula such as: 

IF(TRUE(),"",DELTA()) 

which clears the maximum DELTA value while appearing 
blank on the screen. Then, enter the test DELTA formula in 
the cell immediately below the block of cells to return a local 
DELTA value. See the section on the DELTA function for 
further details. 

4. ITERCNT( ) and DELTA( ) Interaction 

If you enter both the DELTA function with a specific limit 
and the ITERCNT function as a formula by itself in a 
model, you may create divergence. The DELTA function 
also reads the cell that contains the ITERCNT function. 
Because ITERCNT changes by 1 during each iteration, 
DELTA will always return at least 1 unless you set up the 
worksheet model to return local values of DELTA or you 
eliminate the ITERCNT formula. Note that the formula 
ITERCNT()>20 returns TRUE or FALSE after each itera- 
tion and therefore would not affect convergence. 



420 



Solving Extended Problems with the Iteration Option 



5. Single Stepping Iteration Models 

Stepping through an iteration model one iteration at a time 
permits debugging and illustrating an iterative solution. 
To set this up, enter as a response in the "completion test 
at" field an absolute or name reference of a cell that contains 
the TRUE( ) function. This means that Multiplan calculates 
the model only once. And, repeatedly pressing the RECALC 
key produces a step-by-step solution. 

6. General Information 

Turn off iteration and/or automatic recalculation when 
building models to save time. 

The responses in the Options command "iteration" and 
"completion test at" fields are saved with the worksheet in 
Normal mode ( see the Transfer Options command in Chapter 
9). Thus, when you load a worksheet that contains an 
iterating model, the fields of the Options command receive 
the responses saved with the worksheet. If you later start 
another sheet, you may want to reset "iteration" to "No" 
and delete the response in the "completion test at" field. 

Pressing the CANCEL key stops iteration. Only the CANCEL 
key has an affect during iteration because all other keys 
would be entries and are therefore ignored. This also means 
that any characters you type during iteration are not saved, 
so the type-ahead feature does not work. 

Multiplan checks for the CANCEL key at the beginning of 
each iteration. Thus, if you press the CANCEL key during 
an iteration, then Multiplan completes that iteration, checks 
the completion or convergence test, and finally (if the 
completion or convergence test is not TRUE ) stops iteration 
and displays the "Circular references unresolved" error 
message. (If the completion or convergence test is TRUE, 
Multiplan ends iteration as if you had not pressed the 
CANCEL key.) 



421 



Index 



ABS, 312 

Absolute references, 116, 206 

Active cell, 194 

Addition ( + ) operator, 72, 203 

Aligning cell contents, 60 

Alignment, 44 

Alpha, 30, 230 

AND, 313 

ATAN, 314 

AVERAGE, 315 



BACKSPACE key, 19, 32, 76, 201 
Blank, 65, 232 
Building a formula, 67 



Calculating functions, 110 

CANCEL key, 17 

Canceling a command, 20 

Carrying out a command, 20 

Cell contents, 60, 76 

Cell pointer, 6, 8 

Cell references, 205 

Cells, 7, 60, 99, 148 

Center alignment, see Alignment 

Changing a formula, 76 

CHARACTER LEFT key, 76, 200 

CHARACTER RIGHT key, 76, 200 

Colon (:) (range operator), 62 

COLUMN, 316 

Column width, 37, 113 

Comma (,) (union operator), 121 

Command 

field, 198 

line, 194 

selection, 17, 196 
Commands, 14, 196, 229 

Alpha, 30, 230 

Blank, 65, 232 

Copy, 91, 233 

Copy Down, 234 



Commands (continued) 
Copy From, 121, 235 
Copy Right, 91, 142, 238 
Delete, 239 
Delete Column, 240 
Delete Row, 241 
Edit, 76, 242 
external, 172, 302 
external Copy, 172, 303 
external List, 185, 306 
external Use, 307 
Format, 43, 243 
Format Cells, 89, 245 
Format Default, 249 
Format Default Cells, 43, 250 
Format Default Width, 250 
Format Options, 40, 252 
Format Width, 38, 113, 253 
Goto, 14, 255 
Goto Name, 107, 256 
Goto Row-col, 14, 257 
Goto Window, 258 
Help, 20, 259 
Insert, 55, 261 
Insert Column, 262 
Insert Row, 263 
Lock, 145, 264 
Lock Cells, 148, 265 
Lock Formulas, 145, 266 
Move, 267 
Move Column, 269 
Move Row, 270 
Name, 176, 271 
Options, 148, 273 
Print, 155, 274 
Print File, 157, 275 
Print Margins, 158, 276 
Print Options, 158, 277 
Print Printer, 156, 278 
Quit, 23, 49, 279 
Sort, 280 
Transfer, 282 



Index 



Commands (continued) 
Transfer Clear, 164, 283 
Transfer Delete, 284 
Transfer Load, 53, 85, 285 
Transfer Options, 287 
Transfer Rename, 288 
Transfer Save, 47, 80, 289 
Value, 34, 291 
Window, 128, 293 
Window Border, 136, 294 
Window Close, 295 
Window Link, 134, 296 
Window Split, 128, 131, 298 
Window Split Horizontal, 132, 

299 
Window Split Titles, 128, 300 
Window Split Vertical, 132, 301 

Concatenation operator (&), 204 

Copy, 91, 233 

Copy Down, 234 

Copy From, 121, 235 

Copy Right, 91, 142, 238 

Correcting typing errors, 32 

COS, 317 

COUNT, 318 



Delete, 239 
DELETE key, 76, 201 
Delete Column, 240 
Delete Row, 241 
Dependent sheets, 163 
Direction keys, 7, 33 
Division operator (/), 203 
#DIV/0! error value, 216 
DOLLAR, 319 
Drawing lines, 78 



Edit, 76, 242 
Edit cursor, 371 
Editing, 200 
END key, 148 
Entering data, 33 

numbers, 40, 59 

text, 30, 57 
Equal ( = ), 34, 71 
Error values, 114, 215 



EXP, 320 

Exponentiation ( A ), 203 
external, 172, 302 
external Copy, 172, 303 
external List, 185, 306 
External relationships, 220 
external Use, 307 



FALSE, 321 

False, 321 

File access, problems of, 217, 219 

File handling, 53 

File mode, 287 

Normal mode, 287 

Other mode, 287 

Symbolic mode, 287 
Filenames, 48, 217 
FIXED, 322 
Format, 43, 243 
Format Cells, 89, 245 
Format Default, 249 
Format Default Cells, 43, 250 
Format Default Width, 250 
Format Options, 40, 252 
Format Width, 38, 113, 253 
Formats, 45, 89 
Formulas, 67, 98, 103 

changing, 76 

copying, 121, 142 

reviewing, 76 

using names, 103 
Functions, 311 

ABS, 312 

AND, 313 

ATAN, 314 

AVERAGE, 315 

COLUMN, 316 

COS, 317 

COUNT, 318 

DOLLAR, 319 

EXP, 319 

FALSE, 321 

FIXED, 322 

IF, 323 

INDEX, 324 

INT, 325 

ISERROR, 326 



Index 



Functions (continued) 
ISNA, 327 
LEN, 328 
LN, 329 
LOG10, 330 
LOOKUP, 331 
MAX, 333 
MID, 334 
MIN, 335 
MOD, 336 
NA, 337 
NOT, 338 
NPV, 339 
OR, 340 
PI, 341 
REPT, 342 
ROUND, 343 
ROW, 344 
SIGN, 345 
SIN, 346 
SQRT, 347 
STDEV, 348 
SUM, 110, 349 
TAN, 350 
TRUE, 351 
VALUE, 352 



Goto, 14, 255 
Goto Name, 107, 256 
Goto Row-col, 14, 257 
Goto Window, 258 
Greater than (>), 215 
Greater than or equal (> : 



Help, 20, 259 
HOME key, 13 



IF, 323 

Increasing formula, 76 
INDEX, 324 
Insert, 55, 261 
Insert Column, 262 
Insert Row, 263 
INT, 325 



215 



Intersection operator, 210 
ISERROR, 326 

ISNA, 327 



LEN, 328 

Less than (<), 215 

Less than or equal (<=), 215 

Lines, drawing, 78 

LN, 329 

Lock, 145, 264 

Lock Cells, 148, 265 

Lock Formulas, 145, 266 

LOG 10, 330 

Logical values, 215 

LOOKUP, 331 



MAX, 333 
Message line, 194 
MID, 334 
MIN, 335 
MOD, 336 
Mode of file, 287 

Normal mode, 287 

Other mode, 287 

Symbolic mode, 287 
Move, 267 
Move Column, 269 
Move Row, 270 
Multiplication operator (*), 140, 203 



NA, 337 

#N/A error value, 216 

Name, 176, 271 

#NAME? error value, 216 

Names 

as cell references, 209 

building formulas using, 103 

defining, 168, 271 

of cells, 99, 100 

of files, 48, 217 

of worksheets, 170 
NEXT UNLOCKED CELL key, 146 
NEXT WINDOW key, 137 



Index 



Normal mode, 287 

NOT, 338 

Not equal (<>), 215 

NPV, 339 

#NULL! error value, 216 

#NUM! error value, 216 

Numbers, entering, 40, 59, 203 

Number signs (#), 113 

Operators, 203 

Addition ( + ), 72, 203 

Concatenation (&), 204 

Division (/), 203 

Equal ( = ), 34, 71 

Exponentiation ( A ), 203 

Greater than (>), 215 

Greater than or equal (>=), 215 

Intersection (space), 210 

Less than (<), 215 

Less than or equal (< = ), 215 

Multiplication (*), 140, 203 

Not equal (<>), 215 

Percent (%), 203 

Range (:), 62, 211 

Subtraction ( — ), 203 

Union (comma) (,), 212 
Options, 148, 273 
OR, 340 
Other mode, 287 



#REF error value, 216 
References, 206 
REFERENCE key, 201 
References to cells, 205 
Relative references, 116, 206 
REPT, 342 
RETURN key, 20 
Reviewing a formula, 76 
ROUND, 343 
ROW, 344 



Saving space, 365 

time, 365 

work, 47 
Screen, 5 

Scrolling the worksheet, 11 
SIGN, 345 
SIN, 346 
Sort, 280 
SPACE bar, 18 

Space (intersection operator), 210 
SQRT, 347 

Status line, 9, 76, 194 
STDEV, 348 

Subtraction operator ( — ), 203 
SUM, 110, 349 

Supporting sheets, 163, 165, 179 
Symbolic mode, 287 



Percent operator (%), 203 

PI, 341 

Print, 155, 274 

Print File, 157, 275 

Print Margins, 158, 276 

Print Options, 158, 277 

Print Printer, 156, 278 

Problems with file access, 217, 219 

Proposed responses, 17, 199, 229 

Quit, 23, 49, 279 

Range operator ( :), 62, 211 
RECALC key, 151, 201 



TAB key, 19 

TAN, 350 

Text, entering, 30, 57, 204 

Titles, 86, 100, 128 

Transfer, 282 

Transfer Clear, 164, 283 

Transfer Delete, 284 

Transfer Load, 53, 85, 285 

Transfer Options, 287 

Transfer Rename, 288 

Transfer Save, 47, 80, 289 

Transforming the worksheet, 223 

TRUE, 351 

True, 321 

Typing errors, 32 



Union operator (,), 212 
Unlocking cells, 148 



VALUE, 78, 352 

Value, 34, 205, 291 

# VALUE! error value, 216 



Width, column, 37 
Window, 128, 131, 293 
Window Border, 136, 294 
Window Close, 295 
Window Link, 134, 296 
Window Split, 128, 131, 298 
Window Split Horizontal, 132, 299 
Window Split Titles, 128, 300 
Window Split Vertical, 132, 301 
WORD LEFT key, 200 
WORD RIGHT key, 200 
Worksheet 

naming, 170 

number grid, 28, 193 

protecting, 145 



Index 



Worksheet (continued) 
relating, 163, 165, 182 
transforming, 223 



<= (less than or equal), 215 

<> (not equal), 215 

> (greater than), 215 

>= (greater than or equal), 215 

= (equal), 34 

< (less than), 215 

, (union operator), 121 

: (range operator), 62, 211 

& (concatenation operator), 204 

— (subtraction operator), 34 

+ (addition operator), 34 

% (percent operator), 203 

/ (division operator), 203 

* (multiplication operator), 140, 203 

A (exponentiation operator), 203 

( (left parenthesis), 34 

" (quotation mark), 34 

. (period), 34